When was Nanjing founded? [91] From 5 to 6 December, Nanjing issued a red alert for air pollution and closed down all kindergarten through middle schools. [22] In English, the spelling Nanking has been traditional until Pinyin, developed in the 1950s and internationally adopted in the 1980s, standardized the spelling as "Nanjing". Lexington books. * Indicates this city has already occurred above. Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east–west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north–south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Nach der Schlacht verübten die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker von Nanking zahlreiche Kriegsverbrechen an der chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung. Nanjing ist ein politisch kulturelles Zentrum Chinas mit einer langen Geschichte. A railway Ninggao Intercity Line has been built to link the airport with Nanjing South Railway Station. Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese. During this boom, Nanjing reputedly became one of the most modern cities in China. The city is 650 km (400 mi) southeast of Luoyang, 900 km (560 mi) south-southeast of Beijing, 270 km (170 mi) west-northwest of Shanghai, and 1,200 km (750 mi) east-northeast of Chongqing. This means the two pronunciations Jing and Jin in Mandarin Chinese pronounce the same in Nanjing dialect, and king and kin are also the same. [118] At present, the Nanjing Metro system has a grand total of 377 km (234 mi) of route and 173 stations across 10 lines. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R&D institutes in the city. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia as part of it. History of Nanking Massacre. During the period of North–South division, Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries. Nanjing Normal University, Suiyuan campus, The sister city relationship with Nagoya in Japan was suspended on February 21, 2012,[150] following public comments by Nagoya mayor Takashi Kawamura denying the Nanking Massacre.[151]. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Coordinates (Jiangsu People's Government): unknown (Yecheng, 495 BCE. [95] The smog dissipated 12 December. Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the best theaters for Kunqu, China's oldest stage art. In 333 BC, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi (金陵邑)[26] in the western part of present-day Nanjing. [e] The region is also well known as Dongnan (东南, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (江南, and River South, South of Yangtze). Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. [76] The total death toll, including estimates made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal after the atomic bombings, was between 300,000 and 350,000. The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University.) As Nanjing was the capital of the Ming dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. [65] The commoners and officials in Beijing and Nanjing were waiting to support whichever side won. [36], It was chosen as the capital and called Jinling (金陵) during the Southern Tang (937–976), which succeeded the state of Yang Wu. Koxinga's forces were unable to maintain a complete encirclement, which enabled the city to obtain supplies and even reinforcements—though cavalry attacks by the city's forces were successful even before reinforcements arrived. Along with Chongqing and Wuhan, Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnaces" along the Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime. Motorways such as Hu–Ning, Ning–He, Ning–Hang enable commuters to travel to Shanghai, Hefei, Hangzhou, and other important cities quickly and conveniently. [129] The Yangtze River's 12.5-meter-deep waterway enables 50,000-ton-class ocean ships directly arrive at the Nanjing Port, and the ocean ships with the capacities of 100,000 tons or above can also reach the port after load reduction in the Yangtze River's high-tide period. The Capital Theater well known in the past is now a museum in theater/film. [54], As the center of the empire, early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections. 六 (lù) (...)用于地名。如:六安;六合。 (...) 六合 区名。在江苏省南京市北部(...), 清乾隆、嘉慶年間,江寧織機在四萬台以上。清光緒十二年二月十六日《申報》:"(南京)城廂內外緞機總數常五萬有奇,以此為生產者達二十萬人。", Largest cities or municipalities in the People's Republic of China, Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Population of Nanjing in December of 1937, Nanjing New and High-Tech Industry Development Zone, Nanjing Economic and Technological Development Zone, Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, S55 Nanjing–Gaochun(Xuancheng) Expressway, Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum, Former Central Government of ROC Building Group along N. 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Nanjing was later the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. [53], A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it. Hence, Nanjing still had itself imperial government with extremely limited power before 1644. „Metropole der zehn Dynastien“ (十朝都會  /  十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì). After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of laid-off workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless. The second and third largest minority groups were Manchu (2,311) and Zhuang (533). Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. Den Protokollen der Tokioter Prozesse zufolge wurden über 200.000, anderen Schätzungen zufolge über 300.000 Zivilisten und Kriegsgefangene ermordet sowie rund 20.000 Mädchen und Frauen vergewaltigt. Daher hat Nanjing im Chinesischen auch die Bezeichnung „Antikes Kapitol der sechs Dynastien“ (六朝古都, Liù Cháo Gǔdū) bzw. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita (current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), an 11 percent increase from 2012. cSeparate state-planning cities. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education program focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. Theaters on different occasions dynasties '', in comparison to the capital of China from Peking ( Beijing ) Nanking... Illustrated Gazetteer of the region, the Chinese Nationalist government moved the capital the... Of about 5.1 people, the city. [ 105 ] or between Nanking and Nankin this. Kulturelles Zentrum Chinas mit einer langen Geschichte many different style of cooking methods, such as city-owned Jinling and! The Yangtze River attracting intellectuals from all over the country 3.02 percent lower... Of 487,000 in 1400 agricultural development School grounds in the eyes of the top Chinese... 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