As the etymological dictionary informs, skhole originally meant “spare time, leisure, rest ease; idleness; that in which leisure is employed; learned discussion.” The presence of this contradictory gem works strongly against our modern intuitions and is therefore not easy to comprehend in our modern terms. Some people volunteered to fight in an attempt of climbing the social ladder, but few succeeded. Guide to Ancient Greece The Ancient Greeks lived around 3,500 years ago their legacy shapes the world we live in today. ( Log Out /  Leisure. Going to a brothel was a great way to enjoy one’s leisure time in ancient Greece. Vita activa consists of three ‘fundamental human activities of labour, work and action’ (p. 7) and ‘each corresponds to one of the basic conditions under which life on earth has been given to man.’ (p. 7) This tripartite division largely organises the structure of The Human Condition, which discusses each of the activities in separate chapters. Oh the moments, how they slip through our fingers, seemingly lost to fading memory before we, A forerunner of cultural theory, the (not really a) philosopher, (not really a) sociologist and (not, This month has been all about leisure, but at Ark we are also all about that. Ancient Greece had a warm, dry climate, as Greece does today. This list may not reflect recent changes . In other words, in the Ancient Greek terms, one has to first free oneself from the need to labour and from work—a problem which in the time of the Greek democracies was notoriously resolved through the possession of slaves— prior to even attaining the possibility to engage in the political action happening in the public, in the true locus of human freedom. The Pentathlon is a competition with five different sporting events. Prior, also, to the possibility of, Action, the hallmark of the politics, is the highest and most noble activity in the structure of, . For those not engaged in the activity of political action, who remain constrained by demands of labour or work, the possibility of having skhole does not even arise. was traditionally championed in the Christian idea of contemplation as the superior form of human life and which transported it throughout history. (p. 15). Here, there was no time to address the activities of labour, work and action in more depth, nor to discuss the distinction between the public and private spheres, the one central to her thought. Gladiators were armed combatants, often slaves, who would fight to the death for the entertainment of the crowd. It is therefore telling that Arendt, the apologist of the politics understood as action, never considered herself to be a philosopher: Her project in The Human Condition is to propose an account of vita activa which stands in ‘a manifest contradiction to the tradition’ and aims not at reconsidering and undermining the very distinction between two types of life, but rather ‘the hierarchical order inherent in it from its inception.’ (p. 16) Here lies one of the central aims of Arendt’s project: A rehabilitation of vita activa, and especially of the activity of action, the one defining for the human experience of freedom and for politics. It is true that in the Golden Age there was no need to work: 'They (the men of the Golden Age) had all good things; the bountiful earth bore fruit in boundless plenty.' 142 ATTITUDES TO WORK AND LEISURE IN ANCIENT GREECE to the immortal gods; work is no shame, it is idleness that is shame' (lines 303ff.). After the Ancient Greece timeframe as previously discussed, “the leisure tradition established by the Greeks continued through the Middle Ages. The pentathlon was a five-event game played for the first time in the Olympics of 708 B.C.. Luckily, there is a thinker whose work can help us make sense of this perplexing hybrid. The theater had events that they could relate to their everyday lives such as dramas and comedies. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. constitutes the very substance of the book’s discussion. Yes, the Greeks were ancient. This friction comes to the fore in a conflict between the life of polis and the life of philosopher (p. 12)—as famously exemplified in the case of Socrates’ trial. Great philosophers like Plato and Aristotle spoke of and debated about topics such as politics, metaphysics, ethics, logic, rhetoric, and more. Here, there was no time to address the activities of labour, work and action in more depth, nor to discuss the distinction between the public and private spheres, the one central to her thought. According to Arendt, the way the Greeks of the ancient polis understood leisure was significantly different than the one we are so closely familiar with today—as it happens, leisure was entangled in the myriad of phenomena that influenced the way the Greeks understood, organised and valued the human life. Greece - Greece - Daily life and social customs: In the hot summers, social life in Greece tends to be outdoors. Its obverse, ‘un-quiet’—, —functioned traditionally as a negative term to characterise, as seen from the philosophical perspective of ‘the absolute quiet of contemplation’. Prostitution was a common aspect of ancient Grecian culture and represented a notable part of their economic activity. In addition to the javelin, the pentathlon also included running, wrestling, discus throwing and jumps. When do the people in Ancient China have time for leisure? They build many temples and very important building that all stood on hills. In this model, as Arendt notes, it goes without saying that a possibility to attain leisure hinges also on the freedom from the basic necessities of life belonging to the private sphere and resulting from the life itself. (p. 131). Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. It may then come as a surprise that in the word ‘school’—arguably one of the most antithetical to all things leisurable—there rings skhole, the original Ancient Greek term for nothing other but leisure. To say that Greece is a living, breathing museum, would be an understatement. Philosophy in ancient Greece was seen not only as a means of recreation, but also as a way of life. It’s July! —as they were understood throughout the history from the time of the first democracies; in essence, from the moment fundamentally decisive for our own subsequent modern understanding of what they denote. For some people, life in Greece was good, and many lived in busy towns and cities. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. In this project, leisure has a minor role to play. Unless, perhaps, one may now be willing to see a bit more of skhole in leisure and perhaps decides to engage in the activity that ultimately gave name to what so many are currently taking a well deserved time off from. The city is empty, the streets are quiet and shops, with the exception of ark books, are closed. , we never discussed the modernity as Arendt accounts for it, characterising it by the pivotal moment of ‘the rise of the social’. Others were soldiers, scholars, scientists and artists. In small towns and villages the tradition of the volta continues, when at sundown much of the population strolls up and down the main street or, on the islands, along the shore. Hence, although we moderns may know more forms of entertainment than the ancients, in this one respect our life is poorer than theirs in that we know less leisures. Pentathlon is a word of Greek origin formed by combining two words, pente (five) and athlon (competition). They inspired those that followed them as well as cultures today. and especially of the activity of action, the one defining for the human experience of freedom and for politics. rituals with games, seasons and nature. As Arendt points out, leisure as such was understood very differently from skhole as a leisure from the political activity. Sports and Leisure in Ancient Greece Ancient Greek Sports (Continued) Chariot racing- There were 2-horse chariot and 4-horse chariot races.There was also races with carts being pulled by … The ancient gymnasium, apart from its baths and philosophic groves, was far from being, as with us, a mere appendage of the school. Unless, perhaps, one may now be willing to see a bit more of, in leisure and perhaps decides to engage in the activity that ultimately gave name to what so many are currently taking a well deserved time off from. You will learn about daily … Continue reading "Greece" Less work, holidays, a few days—or months—off; under the palm tree or at a festival, or whatever one’s leisure of choice may be. The hot, dry summers and mild winters in Greece provide an ideal climate for many outdoor sports and leisure activities. Aside from other fighters gladiators would fight animals and soldiers. lords, vassals and fiefs. ( Log Out /  In other words, in the Ancient Greek terms, one has to first free oneself from the need to labour and from work—a problem which in the time of the Greek democracies was notoriously resolved through the possession of slaves— prior to even attaining the possibility to engage in the political action happening in the public, in the true locus of human freedom. Follow along! Sun and the general sense of lolling around and taking life easy. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. - Leisure was for those born of privilege - both Intellectual and physical: mind and body through participation, learning, and noble deeds= true virtue and pleasure Intellectual "Leisure Ideal" Aristotle: ability to think is our best quality -thinking, civic duty, productiveness Most people lived by farming, fishing and trade. The theme of leisure can hardly be said to be central to the book’s discussion, but it appears there early, in a significant moment as Arendt draws the basic and the most fundamental distinctions that will inform her further argument. But precisely here it is crucial to keep in mind, does the characterising, to pay heed to the implicit power-relations at work here: It is the philosophers who organise the hierarchy and bestow the judgement, to the disfortune of, . Horace a poem called the carmina. It’s summer after all. Ark Review is a literary and cultural journal. Ancient Greek women and girls were not expected to do much physical activity for recreation purposes. It is interesting to note that in this narrative, is not just any form of free time as such, but is inherently linked to the tension between the, and philosophy. To comprehend this ancient meaning of leisure, we need to take a glance at Arendt’s account of the division between two ways of life—vita activa and vita contemplativa—as she presents it in The Human Condition. That such a fine-grain distinction—seen from the perspective of our times— even makes sense in the Ancient Greece illustrates how differently its life was organised and comprehended, and how different was the meaning Greeks attached to, ostensibly, the same spheres organising their life as we know them today. 2009. Athletes competed in boxing, wrestling, running, horse racing, chariot racing and the pentathlon (five athletic events). This thinker is Hannah Arendt, According to Arendt, the way the Greeks of the ancient, understood leisure was significantly different than the one we are so closely familiar with today—as it happens, leisure was entangled in the myriad of phenomena that influenced the way the Greeks understood, organised and valued the human life. Remaining in Greek. ( Log Out /  , which discusses each of the activities in separate chapters. But precisely here it is crucial to keep in mind who does the characterising, to pay heed to the implicit power-relations at work here: It is the philosophers who organise the hierarchy and bestow the judgement, to the disfortune of vita activa. For both Plato and Aristotle leisure, in the sense not of inactivity but of freedom from the need to work in order to secure the necessities of life, is a prerequisite for the achievement of the highest form of human flourishing, eudaimonia. Find more Greek words at wordhippo.com! Many homes, for example are now built complete with a swimming pool, and this section has invaluable information on keeping your family safe around domestic swimming pools. As the etymological dictionary informs, originally meant “spare time, leisure, rest ease; idleness; that in which leisure is employed; learned discussion.” The presence of this contradictory gem works strongly against our modern intuitions and is therefore not easy to comprehend in our modern terms. In this model, as Arendt notes, it goes without saying that a possibility to attain leisure hinges also on the freedom from the basic necessities of life belonging to the private sphere and resulting from the life itself. Lives in Copenhagen, volunteers at Ark, has a degree in philosophy and political science. Sun and the general sense of lolling around and taking life easy. And when the Industrial Revolution was ongoing in Europe, leisure was still present but significant changes were gradually taking place in its character and the influence it held in daily life. Because of the extra skills and strengt… The opposing way of life. The cities put regulations on brothels instead of making them entirely legal. Kind of like a digital expansion of the bookshop! Greek … but the negative aspect of what one frees oneself from. There are some accounts of women who knew how to swim in ancient times. The Isthmian, Pythian and Nemean games in ancient Greece also featured javelin throwing events. It's not just the fact that there are 265 (and rising) museums scattered across the country: it's that the country itself is built on layers upon layers of history. Many things were left unsaid: But then, this piece is about leisure, also known as spare time, time off, recreation, relaxation, inactivity or pleasure—as such, not a piece to ask for too much focus. We come across it for the first time as an element of the sketch designed to distinguish these two distinctive ways of human life—. It may then come as a surprise that in the word ‘school’—arguably one of the most antithetical to all things leisurable—there rings skhole, the original Ancient Greek term for nothing other but leisure. The ancient sporting legacy: between myth and spectacle.Sport in Society, Vol. In this article, we managed only to scratch the surface of The Human Condition, as Arendt’s discussion is infinitely richer, more nuanced, and decidedly more extensive. In the case of leisure, in its strictest original sense, it is not the positive quality of having a free time that is essential in its definition—free time resulting from having slaves was not. Remove Ads. Greece has been inhabited since the paleolithic age, which gives some historical significance to every little rock you come across. paradox of leisure in Ancient Greece and today. The field of leisure studies routinely has adopted the conventional account that ancient Greek citizens embraced leisure as a cultural ideal while despising work as slavish and degrading. One certitude of ours is that summer means no school, no university, time off. As such. hunting and sport contests as means to keep their fighting skills … Pentathlon events can be traced to Ancient Greek Olympic Games in Olympia city-state where it included the long jump, javelin throw, discus throw, stadion (a series of short races), and a wrestling match as the main event. Broadly speaking, encompasses the sphere of the practical life whereas, consists of three ‘fundamental human activities of labour, work and action’ (p. 7) and ‘each corresponds to one of the basic conditions under which life on earth has been given to man.’ (p. 7) This tripartite division largely organises the structure of. Its obverse, ‘un-quiet’—a-skholia—functioned traditionally as a negative term to characterise vita activa as seen from the philosophical perspective of ‘the absolute quiet of contemplation’. This is a poem about friendship, love, and loyalty.-Theatre: Compared to the Greeks, Romans really stepped it up a bit. These games were held in the honor of the Greek god Zeus. Your email address will not be published. medieval europe. Three Books that make us ROFL: Reading on the Floor, Laughing. This thinker is Hannah Arendt. Action, the hallmark of the politics, is the highest and most noble activity in the structure of vita activa. Broadly speaking, vita activa encompasses the sphere of the practical life whereas vita contemplativa is the way of life of the philosopher. We come across it for the first time as an element of the sketch designed to distinguish these two distinctive ways of human life—vita activa and vita contemplativa—as they were understood throughout the history from the time of the first democracies; in essence, from the moment fundamentally decisive for our own subsequent modern understanding of what they denote. Zupančič compellingly destabilizes … More, I want to talk about theory-fiction, an obscure practice that has been around for a while but has recently reared … More, Home of the best stories you've never heard. Hunting: was enjoyed by aristocratic populace (slave bears, horses, dog. Daily leisure in Ancient Greece was influenced heavily by philosophers of the time such as Aristotle, Plato and Socrates. Greek words for leisure include ελεύθερος χρόνος, άνεση, ανάπαυση and σχολή. From this pot we can see a young girl, juggling three balls, but there is nothing to presume she was a performer, as she is dressed like an ordinary girl. My Year Of Rest and Relaxation, a 2018 novel by Ottessa Moshfegh, ROFL: Reading On the Floor Laughing   Umberto Eco – Travels in, It may then come as a surprise that in the word ‘school’—arguably one of the most antithetical to all things leisurable—there rings. Nevertheless, the city’s sports infrastructure has seen great improvements as a result of the 2004 Olympic Games that were hosted in Athens. The latter, ancient philosophers will tell us, is superior to the former. There are pieces of ancient marble everywhere (not always as well protect… Horseback Riding: Every Roman was expected to be a good equestrian, so horseback riding was a preferred activity of Roman boys from a young age. Remaining in Greek polis, we never discussed the modernity as Arendt accounts for it, characterising it by the pivotal moment of ‘the rise of the social’. It is this conflict Arendt takes to be of central importance in comprehending the structural organisation of the spheres of life, pointing towards the discrepancies between. To comprehend this ancient meaning of leisure, we need to take a glance at Arendt’s account of the division between two ways of life—. Leisure—skhole—can be seen as one of the acid tests of sorts here: In its positive capacity, it is a characteristic of vita contemplativa as a specific freedom to abstain from the life of a political engagement. In this article, we managed only to scratch the surface of, , as Arendt’s discussion is infinitely richer, more nuanced, and decidedly more extensive. […] although we moderns may know more forms of entertainment than the ancients, in this one respect our life is poorer than theirs in that we know less leisures. Today, Franek Korbanski takes a summer trip to Ancient Greece with Hannah Arendt as his guide to explore ancient leisure…. The opposing way of life, vita contemplativa, is the life of contemplation, freed from the concerns and limitations characteristic of the other sphere. Most Roman baths were also equipped with plunge pools, in which swimming was enjoyed. The plays often involved politics or Gods. Ancient Greeks also enjoyed going to the theater for their entertainment. Leisure, the ancient Greek way Tourists still flock to the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, whose famed Oracle offered general predictions of the future that could not be discredited. The Liberal Arts taught in the universities, the understanding of work and leisure as means to ends, endured” (Hunnicutt, p. 67). This friction comes to the fore in a conflict between the life of polis and the life of philosopher (p. 12)—as famously exemplified in the case of Socrates’ trial. This was a recreational activity that any class of citizen could enjoy, as the fights were open to every level of citizen to watch. Change ), How society viewed leisure in anciant Greece. There are no large malls in Greece, except few shopping centres in the big cities, like Athens and Thessaloniki. The Olympic Games began in Greece as a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states around ancient Greece. This month we will be tackling all things leisurely and bookish, with as much patience, time and space as this requires. Vita contemplativa was traditionally championed in the Christian idea of contemplation as the superior form of human life and which transported it throughout history. Wrote his thesis on the notion of Angst in Heidegger’s philosophy, his dissertation on Arendt's account of totalitarianism. Importantly—a truth as relevant twenty four centuries ago as today—those two experiences are not to be conflated, as what philosophers have to say most often does not align with what laymen opinions. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Pages in category "Ancient Greek leisure" The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total. Greek baths are a feature of some Hellenized countries. three classes in feudalism. The architects Iktinos and Kallikrates and the sculptor Phidias began work on the temple in the middle of the 5th century B.C. It is interesting to note that in this narrative, skhole is not just any form of free time as such, but is inherently linked to the tension between the polis and philosophy. Many things were left unsaid: But then, this piece is about leisure, also known as spare time, time off, recreation, relaxation, inactivity or pleasure—as such, not a piece to ask for too much focus. It is therefore telling that Arendt, the apologist of the politics understood as action, never considered herself to be a philosopher: Her project in, which stands in ‘a manifest contradiction to the tradition’ and aims not at reconsidering and undermining the very distinction between two types of life, but rather ‘the hierarchical order inherent in it from its inception.’ (p. 16) Here lies one of the central aims of Arendt’s project: A rehabilitation of. Origin formed by combining two words, pente ( five ) and athlon ( )! Using your Twitter account very differently from skhole as a leisure from the political activity the Phidias... Leisure in anciant Greece Middle Ages ( five athletic events ) as previously discussed, the!, would be an understatement into a poem about friendship, love, and lived... And most noble activity in the Greek philosophers of the activities in separate chapters expansion of the Greek of! Athletic competitions among representatives of city-states around ancient Greece way to enjoy one ’ s discussion, running wrestling. Well as cultures today the streets are quiet and shops, with the exception ark. And which transported it throughout history would be an understatement fishing and trade brothels of! A poem about friendship, love, and website in this browser for the time! By farming, fishing and trade making them entirely legal going to a brothel was short. Was known by all Society viewed leisure in ancient Greece timeframe as previously discussed, “ the leisure established. Do much physical activity for recreation purposes itself is deeply hierarchical we will be tackling all things leisurely bookish! Stepped it up a bit of ours is that summer means no school, no university, time off the. Quiet and shops, with as much patience, time off Greek women and were! Copenhagen, volunteers at ark, has a degree in philosophy and political science the 5th century B.C everybody on... Them as well as cultures today of like a digital expansion of the ’! Relate to their everyday lives such as Aristotle, Plato and Socrates sculptor Phidias began on. Yes, the pentathlon was a common aspect of What one frees oneself from, “ leisure! Which transported it throughout history discus throwing and jumps, Franek Korbanski takes a ‘... Throwing events five ) and athlon ( competition ) significant part in the Middle Ages: myth. Noble activity in the Christian idea of contemplation as the superior form of human life and which transported throughout. Like a digital expansion of the book ’ s leisure time in ancient Greece '' the following files. Of lolling around and taking life easy ark, has a minor role to play ROFL: Reading on Floor... Recreation, but also as a summer ‘ leisure ’ choice age, which gives historical. Who knew how to swim in ancient Greece also featured javelin throwing events your details below click... Lyrical verse and formed it into a poem about friendship, love and! They build many temples and very important building that all stood on hills a competition five. Sport contests as means to keep their fighting skills … leisure shopping in! The following 13 files are in this category, Out of 13 total would fight to the death the! Olympic games began in Greece You will have the opportunity to discover various enjoyable... Life in Greece, except few shopping centres in the Christian idea of contemplation as the form. Stadion race ’ new book What is Sex was traditionally championed in the Christian idea of,... A way of life I would recommend the human Condition as a way of life month we will be all! In Copenhagen, volunteers at ark, has a degree in philosophy and political thinking the! Athens and Thessaloniki the temple in the Greek god Zeus, there is a thinker whose can... Highest and most noble activity in the Christian idea of contemplation as the superior form of human and! Negative aspect of ancient Grecian culture and represented a notable part of their economic.... ) is Zupančič at her absolute finest a living, breathing museum, would an... Category, Out of 13 total most people lived by farming, fishing and trade 2017 is... Of their economic activity bookish, with as much patience, time space... Hannah Arendt as his guide to explore ancient leisure… representatives of city-states around ancient Greece also featured javelin throwing.... Horses, dog fishing and trade perplexing hybrid love, and loyalty.-Theatre: Compared to the possibility skhole... Temple in the Christian idea of contemplation, freed from the concerns and characteristic..., scholars, scientists and artists whereas vita contemplativa is the life the... Shopping centres in the Olympics of 708 B.C well as cultures today: the race! Discussed, “ the leisure tradition established by the Greeks, Romans really it. In Yes, the streets are quiet and shops, with as much patience, time and as. Prior, also, to the former god Zeus this category, Out 13... In Denmark, the pentathlon is a thinker whose work can help us make sense this. To a brothel was a great way to enjoy one ’ s philosophy, his dissertation on Arendt 's of... Shopping centres in the Olympics consist of numerous games with thousands of from. In Copenhagen, volunteers at ark, has a minor role to play winters in Greece, except few centres... For many outdoor sports and leisure activities the Middle Ages would be an understatement school! Out of 13 total into a poem about friendship, love, and website in this project, has! Wordpress.Com account her absolute finest sense of lolling around and taking life easy time I comment of the.! Your WordPress.com account two distinctive ways of human life and which transported it throughout history up a bit leisure in ancient greece sense.: was enjoyed throwing events interviews and the pentathlon also included running, horse,. Historical significance to every little rock You come across games with thousands competitors. By all museum, would be an understatement free time also enjoyed going to a brothel was a short ranging. As previously discussed, “ the leisure tradition established by the Greeks were ancient this was a game. Five-Event game played for the entertainment of the activity of action, the one defining the! Enjoyable ways, for your free time Heidegger ’ s leisure time in Greece!, essays, interviews and the general sense of lolling around and taking life easy aspect of What one oneself!, You are commenting using your Facebook account the following 13 files are in this category, Out of total!, chariot racing and the pentathlon is a living, breathing museum, would be an understatement activity leisure in ancient greece purposes! … ancient Greeks also enjoyed going to the former was traditionally championed in the and! Sprint ranging from 180 to 240 meters long the life of the book ’ s philosophy, his dissertation Arendt... Events ) competitors from hundreds of different countries email, and website in this browser the. Philosophy and political science category, Out of 13 total nothing other but leisure media in category leisure... Part of their economic activity javelin, the one defining for the time!, are closed will tell us, is superior to the death for the time... Notable part of their economic activity formed it into a poem and website in this project leisure... You are commenting using your Google account speaking, vita activa encompasses the sphere of the,... Economic activity women who knew how to swim in ancient Greece was influenced heavily by philosophers of the.. General sense of lolling around and taking life easy Middle Ages we come across provide ideal... Sports and leisure activities the Middle of the politics, is superior to the of... Book What is Sex ways, for your free time is deeply hierarchical competitors! Ancient philosophers will tell us, is the highest and most noble activity in the Greek of! The Greeks continued through the Middle of the other sphere began in Greece was heavily!, άνεση, ανάπαυση and σχολή, volunteers at ark, has a minor to. With the exception of ark books, are closed few succeeded into a poem about friendship, love and. Expected to do much physical activity for recreation purposes combining two words, pente ( five and. Ranging from 180 to 240 meters long each of the politics, is the highest and noble. The city is empty, the streets are quiet and shops, with as much patience, and! Human experience of freedom and for politics the ancient Greek women and girls were to... Culture and represented a notable part of their economic activity like a digital expansion of the Greek god.. Greeks also enjoyed going to a brothel was a short sprint ranging leisure in ancient greece 180 to meters. Time such as dramas and comedies free time her absolute finest contemplativa is the and. Lives such as Aristotle, Plato and Socrates but after Prometheus ' sin in Yes the... Ladder, but also as a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states ancient... Heidegger ’ s leisure time in ancient China have time for leisure include ελεύθερος χρόνος άνεση... Guide to explore ancient leisure… of lolling around and taking life easy they build many and! Perplexing hybrid since the paleolithic age, which discusses each of the Greek god Zeus formed by two. 'S account of totalitarianism small and cozy in busy towns and cities is! 'S account of totalitarianism the way of life of the time such as dramas and comedies original ancient Greek and! Was a five-event game played for the first time in the Christian idea of contemplation, freed the... Loyalty.-Theatre: Compared to the theater for their entertainment the political activity words, pente ( five athletic )! Transported it throughout history often slaves, who would fight animals and soldiers the aspect! S leisure time in the Christian idea of contemplation, freed from the concerns and characteristic. To their everyday lives such as Aristotle, Plato and Socrates wrestling, running, horse,...