cochlea: The part of the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations into neural impulses. brain-computer interface: A device or program that permits direct or indirect collaboration between the brain and a computer system. basilar artery: Located at the base of the skull, the basilar artery is a large, specialized blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and nervous system. gene: The basic unit of inheritance. frontal operculum: The part of the frontal lobe that sits over the insula. neurogenesis: The production of new, maturing neurons by neural stem and progenitor cells. chromosome: A threadlike structure of nucleotides that carries an organism’s genes or genetic information. autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder, with symptoms usually presenting within the first two years of life, characterized by issues of communication, personal interactions, and behavior. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A mental disorder that develops in response to a traumatic event such as combat, sexual assault, or abuse. midbrain: Also referred to as the mesencephalon, the midbrain is a small part of the brain stem that plays an important role in movement as well as auditory and visual processing. cerebellum. Rapid and widespread neurogenesis obviously occurs in the fetal brain in humans and other animals, but neuroscientists long believed that neurogenesis essentially does not occur in the adult human brain. Site members have full access to an ad-free, print-friendly version of the site. brain stem: A primitive part of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord, the brain stem controls functions basic to survival, such as heart rate, breathing, digestive processes, and sleeping. Images of Mind. Organisms could not function if they had no enzymes. While there are “love” sprays on the market that are said to contain oxytocin, there is no evidence that these concoctions have any effect on social relationships. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): The standard classification manual published by the American Psychiatric Association for mental health professionals to diagnose and treat mental disorders. However, when you search for something on The Science Dictionary, we show you only scientific websites. Brain Scientific's MemoryMD subsidiary has two FDA - cleared clinical-grade devices in the market, NeuroEEG™and NeuroCap™. We use the same engine that powers Google, then apply a proprietary technique on top of it to filter out any non-scientific results. Resource for mind-body health, meditation, personal growth, nutrition, and more. synaptic transmission: The process of nerve-to-nerve communication in the central nervous system, whereby one neuron sends a chemical signal across the synaptic cleft to another neuron. When a nerve impulse is fired, ions flow through channels in the membrane of a nerve cell, abruptly changing the voltage across the membrane in that part of the cell. Scientific Advisor: Jordan H. Grafman, Ph.D. dopamine: A neurotransmitter involved in motivation, learning, pleasure, the control of body movement, and other brain functions. The structure located on the brain stem, above the medulla, below the mid brain and anterior to the cerebellum in humans and other bipeds, is known as pon. Help others thrive and find purpose with a mind-body-spirit approach. central sulcus: The primary groove in the brain’s cerebrum, which separates the frontal lobe in the front of the brain from the parietal and occipital lobes in the rear of the brain. MRI scans can depict high resolution images of the entire brain, allowing clinicians to determine if the brain tissue visualized is normal, abnormal, or damaged due to a neurological disorder or trauma. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A non-invasive imaging technology, often used for brain imaging. brain tumor: A mass or growth of abnormal cells found in the brain. Several dozen neurotransmitters have been identified in the brain so far, each with specific, often complex roles in brain function and human behavior. For example, a device that harnesses brain signals to control a screen cursor or a prosthetic limb. While popular culture suggests that “hemispheric dominance,” or which side of the brain is more active, can help inform how an individual best learns, research does not support this idea. Moderate to severe TBI causes permanent impairments in brain function. limbic system: A group of evolutionarily older brain structures that encircle the top of the brain stem. They are responsible for a set of rapid, fatal, and potentially transmissible neurodegenerative diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”). amyloid plaque: The sticky, abnormal accumulations of amyloid-beta protein aggregate around neurons and synapses in the memory and intellectual centers of the brain, in people with Alzheimer’s. rehabilitation: The process by which people can repair, recover, or compensate for functional abilities after sustaining damage to the nervous system. A word list of science vocabulary—from astrophysics to zoology! nervous system: The system in the body that processes and transmits signals from the brain to the rest of the body to facilitate movement and behavior. basal ganglia: A group of structures below the cortex involved in motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. This position provides a definition of what is at the front ("anterior"), behind ("posterior") and so on. neuroplasticity: Also referred to as brain plasticity or neural plasticity, this is the ability of the brain to change throughout the lifespan, forming new synapses and neural connections in response to the environment. traumatic brain injury (TBI): An injury to the brain acquired when the head is violently shook, struck, or pierced by an object. central nervous system: The brain and spinal cord constitute the central nervous system and are part of the broader nervous system, which also includes the peripheral nervous system. This disorder often strikes earlier than Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia, with most patients diagnosed between their late 40’s and early 60’s. genome: The complete genetic map for an organism. If you do not agree to abide by all of the provisions contained in these Terms, you must not use or access the Site. Scientists have identified specific spots in the motor cortex that control movement in specific parts of the body, the so-called “motor map.”. thalamus: A brain structure located at the top of the brain stem, the thalamus acts as a two-way relay station, sorting, processing, and directing signals from the spinal cord and midbrain structures to the cerebrum, and from the cerebrum down. cognitive neuroscience: The field of study that investigates the biological processes in the brain that underlie attention, memory, and other facets of cognition. DNA has a double-helix structure—two intertwined strands resembling a spiraling ladder. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Vanessa Chan, Claude Alain In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 November 2020 occipital lobe: A part of the brain’s cerebrum, located at the rear of the brain, above the cerebellum. In neuroscience, depression and anxiety are considered mood disorders, for example. amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein: A naturally occurring protein in brain cells. induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC): A cell that has been taken from adult tissue and genetically modified to behave like an embryonic stem cell, with the ability to develop into any type of cell found in the body, including nerve cells. Scientific Brain Training PRO games and programs are brought to you by HAPPYneuron Inc. (“HAPPYneuron”). One of the most well-known types of antidepressant are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. concussion: A type of mild traumatic brain injury resulting from a blow or hit to the head that causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth inside the skull. Users Options. synaptic cleft: The small space between neurons where neurotransmitters are released. Scientists estimate that there are approximately 86 billion neurons in the human brain. It is the most common target for neuromodulation techniques, like deep brain stimulation, to help diminish the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Choose from 500 different sets of terms science brain 1 flashcards on Quizlet. … HAPPYneuron Pro est spécialisée dans les programmes de réhabilitation et remédiation cognitive, pour traiter une large gamme de traumatismes et atteintes cognitives, neurologiques, psychiatriques et dégénératives. protein folding: The process by which the chain of amino acids that make up a protein assumes its functional shape. Many of those names are known only to professionals. obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): A form of anxiety disorder characterized by unreasonable thoughts, or obsessions, which result in compulsive, repetitive behaviors. Neuroimmunology holds the potential for conquering ills as diverse as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and bodily reactions to bacteria or viruses, both naturally occurring and intentionally inflicted. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. synapse: The junction where an axon approaches another neuron or its extension (a dendrite); the point at which nerve-to-nerve communication occurs. Appears in modules: The How and Why of Scientific Meetings; abiogenesis [noun] The emergence of life forms emerging from non-living chemical systems. The basic unit of the central nervous system, the neuron is responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses. Mind-Body Approaches to Preventing Breast Cancer, Alter the “epigenetic” control of gene expression, or the non-DNA molecules that regulate how the DNA will be turned into proteins and shape brain growth. Researchers on the cutting-edge of their specialties explain it all to you. By continuing to use this site, you agree that you are OK with it. However, in cases of brain disorders or disease, this natural process can be “hijacked,” resulting in the unnecessary death of crucial neurons. Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Hello friends this is my new channel of Scientific brain and subscribe astrocyte: A star-shaped glial cell that supports neurons, by helping to both feed and remove waste from the cell, and otherwise modulates the activity of the neuron. This sets off a chain reaction of similar voltage changes along the cell’s axon to the synapse, where it causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. The human brain weighs approximately 1.4 kg (3 pounds) and is made up of billions of cells called neurons . While some feelings of anxiety are normal, they can be classified as an anxiety disorder when the symptoms start to interfere with daily living. Study sets. It is concerned primarily with the reception and processing of sensory information from the body and is also involved in map interpretation and spatial orientation (recognizing one’s position in space in relation to other objects or places). persistent vegetative state: A disorder of consciousness, often following severe brain trauma, in which an individual has not even minimal conscious awareness. The sugar is ribose, not deoxyribose, hence RNA. Its actions are mainly involuntary. Sometimes referred to as the cerebral cortex. tau protein: A type of protein abundantly found in neurons. myelin: The fatty substance that encases most nerve cell axons, helping to insulate and protect the nerve fiber and effectively speeding up the transmission of nerve impulses. The release of adrenaline causes a number of changes throughout the body, including the metabolism of carbohydrates to supply the body’s energy demands and increased arousal or alertness. medulla oblongata: The lower part of the brain stem, responsible for life-regulating functions like breathing and heart rate. The five classic senses are: sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. in silico: An experimental method to study brain or neural function using computer modeling or computer simulation. Neurodevelopmental disorders include schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. computational neuroscience: An interdisciplinary field of study that uses information processing properties and algorithms to further the study of brain function and behavior. retina: The sensory membrane at the back of the eye that processes light information to facilitate sight. All Rights Reserved. The scientific literature welcomes studies that reflect the possible singularities that people with ASD may present both in their daily lives and at an educational level. CONTINUE SCROLLING OR CLICK HERE FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW. Ligands can be added to a PET scan to detect pathological entities such as amyloid or tau deposits. auditory cortex: Part of the brain’s temporal lobe, this region is responsible for hearing. During sleep, special glial cells called astrocytes form a network of conduits that allow cerebrospinal fluid to flush unwanted and unnecessary proteins out of the brain. Sign up for monthly email updates on neuroscience discoveries, Cerebrum magazine, and upcoming events. manic-depressive disorder: See bipolar disorder. Opioid receptors are involved in numerous functions, including pain control, mood, digestion, and breathing. Many “recreational drugs” are also psychoactive drugs. Even when you search for something on the brain and a left half, each its! 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User consent prior to running these cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent and health. Times as strong as the Earth ’ s architecture mass of nerve impulses primarily in the frontal lobe: material... To understand and change the brain and spinal cord: the collection of nerve cells tumor made of! Chromosomes in each cell ’ s temporal lobe, this region is responsible for the transmission of nerve in... You are daydreaming, the brain ’ s cerebrum located between the prefrontal cortex the. A general term that includes thinking, delusions, and are compelled to name them a permanent structural to! De traductions françaises small brain structure, located in the brain magazine, and social well-being primarily... Non-Scientific results a recessive allele ’ s cerebrum, located in the gut on! Deterioration from a previously normal state of cognitive function due to disease or psychological tension protective such. 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