Over the next 200 years, the heavier debris accumulated around the … Toi hom qua tren freeway to thay co Volcano gan thanh pho nen sang nay toi den tham. ), explosions rocked Sunset Crater. The Kana’a flow extruded from the eastern base and continued in a northeasterly direction along Kana’a wash for about 5 miles (8 km) (Holm and Moore, 1987). Glaciers Sunset Crater National Monument has not been impacted by glaciers at all. This is the area most tourists know of Sunset Crater. For those interested in climbing a cinder cone, the Lenox Crater Trail provides a moderately strenuous hike up to a nice view of the nearby San Francisco Peaks at the summit. A lava field at the foothills of the crater, estimated to be about 1000 years old. Several hundred years before these eruptions took place, people lived at and around the volcano. You Can Walk Through A Lava Flow. It's one of the first places we bring all of our out-of-state visitors, and it's our favorite camping spot, where we take our kids every summer. According to the National Park Service, “Legend has it that (John Wesley) Powell named Sunset Crater for the red and yellow colors of its rim.”. Meteor Crater is not the only crater worth seeing in the state of Arizona. Admission is $5 per person, good for 7 days at both Sunset and Wuptaki National Monuments. Recent rumors about steaming from Sunset crater, and speculation of a possible reawakening of the volcano are most likely based on false or fake information. The date of the eruptions that formed the 340-meter-high cone (1,120 ft) was initially derived from tree-ring dates, suggesting the eruption began between the growing seasons of AD 1064–1065. Surrounded by sharp black rocks, I had felt like I left Earth and found myself on another planet. Affiliate disclosure: As an Amazon Associate, we may earn commissions from qualifying purchases from Amazon.com. The cinders of the volcano itself, as well as its surrounding lava flows, are all made of gray, black, or red basalt. Maui is full of natural treasures, but Haleakala Crater is by far the most popular! During its creation about a thousand years ago (1085 C.E. When the pressure becomes too much, a violent explosion results. Sunset Crater, one of the youngest scoria cones in the contiguous United States, began erupting between the growing seasons of 1064 and 1065 A.D. Eruptions continued in the area for many decades. Affiliate disclosure: As an Amazon Associate, we may earn commissions from qualifying purchases from Amazon.com. Map Directions Things To Do . It is about a 300 foot elevation gain. In April 2012, I did my first backpacking trip ever, hiking 23 miles over 3 days in Grand Canyon National Park. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument: see National Parks and Monuments (table). You will have the opportunity to explore the Bonito Lava Flow and numerous volcanic features while walking at the base of the Sunset Crater Volcano. It is estimated that Sunset Crater erupted sometime between 1040 and 1150 CE and is the most recent volcano activity around Flagstaff Arizona. We recommend booking Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument tours ahead of time to secure your spot. Over the course of the eruption, cinders pile into a steep-sided cone, forming a deep crater around the volcano’s vent. The ancient inhabitants of this area must have witnessed the eruption of nearby Sunset Crater, the State’s youngest volcano, which erupted in about A.D. 1064. The volcano eruption formed the Sunset Crater and changed history in this region. There are many cinder cones around the principal and you can walk on the frozen lava. The one-mile wide, 550 foot-deep crater is about 50,000 years old (once again, young by geologic standards) and is the best-preserved meteorite impact site on Earth. Sunset Crater is located at: 6082 Sunset Crater Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86004. Incredibly, this area was seized by geological violence for over a century. See all 10 Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument tours on Tripadvisor The volcanic eruption and lava flow along with the spreading of ash for hundreds of miles changed the climate in the area. According to the latest research, the eruption began sometime between 1085 and 1090 A.D., and lasted no more than two years. Sunset Crater is a cinder cone that is related to the nearby San Francisco volcanic field, which formed from a geological hotspot - as the North American plate moves over the spot, new volcanoes appear. The last eruption took place sometime between about 1080 and 1150 AD. Sunset Crater is a young (ca. Sunset Crater, located in north-central Arizona, actually the youngest volcano found on the 130,000-square-mile at Colorado Plateau. ... June 6, 1912 - Novarupta volcano erupts in Alaska, killing two people. Volcanic lava and cinder debris destroyed homes and made it impossible for Sunset Crater community to grow crops. The second is on a different crater Lennox crater right across the road from the first … The Sunset Crater eruption produced a blanket of ash and lapilli covering an area of more than 2,100 square kilometers (810 sq mi) and forced the temporary abandonment of settlements of the local Sinagua people. The mile-long interpretive trail loop at the base of Sunset Crater … Not really. Prior to 2011, geologists thought the eruption began in 1064 A.D. and lasted as long as 200 years. Basalt. As I walked through the lava flow at Sunset Crater National Monument, I remembered the first time we had come here. The Destruction and Rebirth of a Landscape. Sunset Crater volcano itself is one of the youngest, with … Sunset Crater is in the eastern part of the San Francisco volcanic field. The monument is managed by the National Park Service in conjunction with nearby Wupatki National Monument. Strombolian eruption built Sunset Crater Volcano and blanketed an area of at least 2000 km2 with cinders. How old is Sunset Crater? Crater Lake is a mythical place, a real place, described in poetry and legend. However, these displaced people thrived following the eruption by relocating to areas when lighter accumulations of ash and cinders provided a boost in fertility to the farmlands. Do la Sunset Crater Volcano. [12] Public outcry over this plan led in part to the proclamation of Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument by President Herbert Hoover in 1930.[13]. Both the walk through the trail and the ride through the monument is a journey of its own. These eruptions will produce brand new cinder cone volcanoes, some of which might even form right next to Sunset Crater. A 1-mile (1.6 km), self-guided loop trail is located at the base of Sunset Crater, but hiking to the summit is not permitted. The sunset crater has three nice hiking areas. 12 Best Flagstaff Cabin Rentals to Escape to in 2020, 8 Best Grand Canyon Airbnbs for Adventurous Travelers, 15 Amazingly Cozy Cabin Rentals in Williams, Arizona, Ruff’n It: 20 Pet-Friendly Cabin Rentals in Arizona. Sunrise and sunset at Haleakala Crater are one of the top sights to explore in Maui. Today, it teaches how nature and humankind affect each other—and how rebirth and … Cinder cones are also known as scoria cones. Among the smallest of the volcanoes, a cinder cone erupts gently, spewing small globs of lava that cool into volcanic pebbles called cinders. A little over 900 years old. The field covers roughly 1,800 square miles (4,600 square kilometers), and many of its volcanoes formed over the course of months to years. This volcano last which erupted in 1085 A.D. forming a 340-meter-high cone (1,120 ft). Sunset Crater formed about 900 years ago, when red-hot rocks, cinders, and ashes erupted and caused a slow-moving lava flow through the surrounding area. The emerging volcano buried the landscape in a thick, dark carpet of lava and ash. Experience not only the thrill of Sunset Crater’s vast, powerful peaks and lava flows, but also immersion into the rich history of an extinct people who once made their home in its folds – the Sinagua Indians. Sunset Crater is extinct and will not erupt again. Powerful explosions profoundly affected the lives of the local population and forever changed the landscape and ecology of the area. Sunset Crater produced basaltic lava low in silica, and resulted in a relatively calm and “fluid” eruption, much like our present-day volcanoes on the Hawaiian Islands. Once upon a time, the National Park Service carved a trail up to the mountain’s summit. Sunset Crater volcano, located ∼25 km northeast of downtown Flagstaff (Arizona, USA) in the San Francisco volcanic field, represents an interesting case of highly explosive monogenetic volcanism. On the trail from Lenox to Sunset Crater. Established in 1930, it occupies an area of 5 square miles (13 square km) within [11] Thanks to its prime location between two national forests, Park City offers stellar camping sites in any direction. SUNSET CRATER is a national monument in Arizona, created in 1930 to preserve a notable volcanic crater. The landscape at Sunset Crater is dramatically different. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument is a small, understated gem of a park just outside Flagstaff Arizona. Sunset Crater, located north of Flagstaff, is within the Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. 11-17-2020 Sunset Crater Volcano, Wupatki National Monument, Grand Canyon. No. It is open all year round. Sunset Crater is a colorful volcanic cone composed of lava fragments called cinders. The cinder cone volcano's rim is the dusky red of sunset, but the crater is only part of the story. [10], Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument is a U.S. National Monument in the north-central part of the U.S. state of Arizona, created to protect Sunset Crater, a cinder cone within the San Francisco Volcanic Field. Quick Facts. When the eruption finished, it had changed both the landscape and the people who lived here. Sunset Crater is the youngest in a string of volcanoes (the San Francisco volcanic field) that is related to the nearby San Francisco Peaks.[6]. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, geologic formation in north-central Arizona, U.S. Violent eruptions usually happen in silica-rich lavas. Sunset Crater is a cinder cone volcano. This may sound old, but in geology, this is really young! Haleakala is the largest volcano in Maui. [7] However, more recent geologic and archaeological evidence places the eruption around AD 1085. Earthquakes, thunderclaps, and lava bombs shook the ground. The monument covers an area of 3,040 acres in the Coconino National Forest and contains Sunset Mountain, an extinct volcano which last erupted about the end of the 9th century. A 1mi trail skirts the base of the volcano. Flagstaff is home to the Flagstaff Urban Trail System (FUTS) which encompasses approximately 50 miles of trails throughout the city and includes areas on all sides of town. Sunset Crater Volcano is a fairly young volcano and so it's appearance hasn't changed a great deal. Jake is a bearded, flannel-loving tree-hugger with a passion for the natural world. However, NPS closed the trail in 1973 because of intensified erosion of the volcano’s loose cinders. "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011", "The San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona – U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 017-01", "Sunset Crater and the Sinagua: A New Interpretation", "Despite rumors, Arizona's Sunset Crater Volcano remains extinct", "Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument", "America's Best Idea: Sunset Crater nearly destroyed by Hollywood", "Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument – People", U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Sunset Crater, U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Visitor Center, President Lincoln's Cottage at the Soldiers' Home, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sunset_Crater&oldid=989455318, Protected areas of Coconino County, Arizona, Wikidata value to be checked for Infobox mountain, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 02:16. when exposed to the elements, just like when you leave a car out in a yard for forty or fifty years. Sunset Crater is an extinct volcano, while Meteor Crater is a meteorite impact site 40 miles southeast of Sunset Crater. [8] The largest vent of the eruption, Sunset Crater itself, was the source of the Bonito and Kana-a lava flows that extended about 2.5 kilometers (1.6 mi) NW and 9.6 kilometers (6 mi) NE, respectively. You cannot climb Sunset Crater itself, but trails access smaller, nearby cinder cones, including Lenox Crater (1mi round-trip). The ground swelled, vents opened in the Earth's crust and tossed molten rock skyward. Visiting the Sunset Crater Volcano and Bonito Lava Flow is part of our Coal Mine Canyon Day Trip. So while Sunset Crater itself will not erupt again, there could be an eruption in the direct vicinity in the near future! Once things cooled down, the new cinder cone stood 1,000 feet tall where flat land with open meadows and forests were before. However, there is still an active magma chamber(underground pool of molten rock) under the area, which will undoubtedly produce more eruptions in the future. A trail providing access to the summit and crater was closed in 1973 because of excessive erosion caused by hikers. Sunset Crater Volcano Allison Knorek P3 Location Northeast Flagstaff Arizona San Francisco volcanic field Colorado Plateau Eastward to Williams, AZ Little Colorado River Flagstaff AZ 5,000 km2 Climate January-April May-August September-October November-December History 1064-1180 Please call the park for tour schedules at (928) 526-0502. It’s tubular pink flowers bloom in the spring and summer. Oxidation! Absolutely — numerous hiking trails traverse the rugged landscape of Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. The park includes a few other cool hikes too. The first is a very small loop which we did to walk on and around the lava flow. This small perennial plant only grows in the forests in and around Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. Join 80,000+ adventurers getting epic travel, camping and hiking ideas every week. The hiking trail below the summit skirts the substantial Bonito Lava Flow. Our experience there was beyond spectacular. Unlike Sunset Crater, there is a paved road to the top of this volcano. Although underlain by the same rocks exposed at Wupatki, the Sunset Crater area is covered with cinders and cooled lava flows from intermittent volcanic eruptions during the last few million years. Sunset Crater is a cinder cone located north of Flagstaff in U.S. state of Arizona. View from the Lenox Crater trail Sunset Crater. The smell of sulfur drifted in the air as the Sinagua people who lived nearby began leaving the area. In theory, yes, but it is illegal! The summit is at an elevation of 8,042 feet (2,451 meters). A people referred to by archaeologists as the Sinagua lived on the volcanic landscape surrounding Sunset Crater at the time of its eruption. The volcano that created Sunset Crater erupted for over 100 years! Silica makes the lava thick, causing a buildup of pressure. A cloud of ash rose, steam hissed, cinders rained and red lava flowed. Is this post, you can read about our visit and learn informative and useful facts about the Haleakala Crater.. History of Haleakala Volcano. Sunset Crater Sunset Crater, located about 25 km (15 mi) northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, is one of the youngest scoria cones in the contiguous United States and is the youngest of about 600 such cones in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. It is named for its brilliantly colored scoria deposits on the cone and only one of more than 550 vents of the vast San Francisco volcanic field. Sunset Crater Volcano Allison Knorek P3 Location Northeast Flagstaff Arizona San Francisco volcanic field Colorado Plateau Eastward to Williams, AZ Little Colorado River Flagstaff AZ 5,000 km2 Climate January-April May-August September-October November-December History 1064-1180 The volcano, one of Arziona's youngest, last erupted about 1000 years ago, but shows currently no signs of reawakening. “Haleakala” in Hawaiian means “ House of the Sun ”, and when you see the summit rising 10,023 feet above sea … Yes. Instead, the area includes both Arizona’s highest mountain—San Francisco Mountain, with peaks rising to 12,633 feet—and the State’s youngest volcano—Sunset Crater, which erupted less than 1,000 years ago and has been a … It is unlike any other landscape I have ever seen! Once off Lenox Crater, it flattens and goes through the lava bed before joining the main trail. Sunset Crater Volcano is the youngest of more than 600 volcanoes of the San Francisco volcanic field in north-central Arizona. The volcano is extinct. The Lava Flow Trail is a 1-mile interpretive loop with trail markers and a pamphlet available to complete a self-guided tour. Additional vents along a 10-kilometer-long fissure (6.2 mi) extending SE produced small spatter ramparts and a 6.4-kilometer-long lava flow (4 mi) to the east. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument is the slightly tautological name given to an area northeast of Flagstaff containing the results of much igneous activity - several colorful cinder cones formed by extinct volcanoes, and large expanses of lava and ash, mostly unobscured by vegetation and still pure black in color. Source for information on Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument: The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th … The air was filled with the noxious fumes of gases rising up from the cracks in the earth, and cooling lava fell, covering the ground in a layer of dark cinder. Check out this park’s trails page for the full rundown. Sunset Crater is a cinder cone volcano. Sunset Crater is a nearly symmetrical cone made of dark-gray scoria and scattered bombs. At one end of this National Park is Sunset Crater, with it's unworldly lava flows & cruncy lava beds, beautiful views & paths. You can learn more about our editorial and affiliate policy, 10 Killer Backpacking Trails in Yosemite National Park, 9 Best Camping Spots Near Park City, Utah, 10 Rad Airbnbs Near Death Valley National Park, California, Day Trip Inspiration: Arizona’s Bear Canyon Lake, 11 Best Cabin Rentals Near Payson, Arizona, The 17 Best Hikes in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, The 5 Best Camping Spots Near Logan, Utah, Boucher – Hermit Loop: A Grand Canyon Backpacking Excursion. Among the smallest of the volcanoes, a cinder cone erupts gently, ... What type of rock is it made of? Sunset Crater and Lenox Crater Volcanoes were born in a series of eruptions sometime between 1040 and 1100. For a better value, I recommend the $80 annual National Park Pass, which admits you into any national park for 1 year. If you have any questions there is a Sunset Crater Volcano Visitor Center that is … [14] A visitor center is located near the park entrance, 15 miles (24 km) north of Flagstaff, Arizona, along U.S. Highway 89. Instead of “rusting”, scientists call this oxidation, which is a chemical reaction between iron and oxygen that results in iron oxide, or rust. The Sinaguan homes — many of them partially underground structures called pithouses — were filled with cinders or in some cases burned. History Nature and Science Description Sunset Crater Volcano was created out of a order of explosions that happened in between 1040 and 1100. It is the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Photograph courtesy of the National Park Service. In 1928, a Hollywood film company, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, planned to detonate large quantities of explosives on the side of Sunset Crater in order to create an avalanche for Zane Grey's motion picture Avalanche. Sunset Crater Q&A: Facts About Arizona’s Youngest Volcano. Sunset Crater Volcano is an easy place to visit, very impressive, beautiful and you can feel the force of a volcano. The cone is about 1,000 feet (300 m) high and 1 mile (1.6 km) in base diameter. A common lava rock, basalt is high in iron, and thus takes on a dark color. Sunset Crater at sunset. North of the city of Flagstaff lies Sunset Crater Volcano National Park, home of – you guessed it – the Sunset Crater Volcano. You can learn more about our editorial and affiliate policy here. The road was initially constructed with a mule-drawn plow and was completed in 1925. While the enigmatic Meteor Crater was originally believed to be a volcanic formation – it is now known that it was created by a meteorite impact thousands of years ago – there has been no doubt as to what created the Sunset Crater Volcano. Examples: Paricutin in Mexico, Sunset Crater in Arizona. Flagstaff is located in the world’s largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest. Sunset Crater was one the reasons we moved here a few months after that original vacation, along with many other wonderful natural features of the Desert Southwest. Yes, there is a volcano in Arizona. The Sunset Crater Beardtongue (Penstemon clutei) makes its home here. Sunset Crater Volcano, aerial view. Sunset Crater. A geographer by education, he’s worked as a park ranger with the National Park Service, a tour guide at the Grand Canyon South Rim, and a docent at Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin West. With over 700,000 acres of panoramic wilderness and 800 miles of developed trails, Yosemite is perhaps the most iconic national park in the entire country — and for good reason. People had been living in the area for at least several hundred years before the volcanoes erupted. Unlike Sunset Crater, there is a paved road to the top of this volcano. The Sinagua abandoned their nearby fields as thick layers of cinders made the farmland unusable. The Sunset Crater eruption produced a blanket of ash and lapilli covering an area of more than 2100 sq km and forced the abandonment of settlements of the indigenous Sinagua Indians. These post-eruption Sinaguan settlements are now preserved as Walnut Canyon National Monument and Wupatki National Monument. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument is one of the less known, but extraordinary places, where we have an opportunity to learn much about Nature and Humanity.. Seen in: Arizona, National Parks, Southwest. Lava chay xuong khi nui lua phun len chay dai khoang 1.5 miles. Two lava flows, the Kana’a and the Bonito flows, effused from the base of the cone. If you book with Tripadvisor, you can cancel up to 24 hours before your tour starts for a full refund. Although underlain by the same rocks exposed at Wupatki, the Sunset Crater area is covered with cinders and cooled lava flows from intermittent volcanic eruptions during the last few million years. The cause of the steam was later determined to be a forest fire, and geologists stated that the volcano was extinct. Established in 1930, it occupies an area of 5 square miles (13 square km) within Source for information on Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument: The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. This hardened lava is black and appears fresh as it has devastated the forest in its path. SUNSET CRATER VOLCANO NATIONAL MONUMENT - More than likely, it started with earthquakes. Stretch your legs on the several short trails (each a mile or shorter) and explore this arid volcanic field. Lenox Crater Volcano is … The rocks contain iron, and the iron rusts (turns red!) The crater is within the Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. However, the eruption did have enough power to spray cinders and volcanic ash dozens of miles across the neighboring landscape. Damage from hikers forced the National Park Service to close a trail leading to the crater, but a short trail at the base remains.[9]. The first is the park’s namesake, a 1000-foot-tall (305 m) cinder cone that erupted sometime around 1085 CE. All of the factors that made it the way it is today are related to seismic activity and tectonic plates and volcanic activity. Lichens formed on the rock surfaces and began to break down the rock into soil. People must have been warned by tremors and earthquakes before red-hot rocks exploded from the ground and rained down on their pit houses and farmland. Yes! Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. Sunset Crater Volcano is approximately one thousand years old. Sunset Crater is in the eastern part of the San Francisco volcanic field. Sunset Crater Volcano is just one of over 600 volcanoes located in Northern Arizona. --- Sources: GVP Sunset Crater volcano information Arizona Handbook Sunset Crater Fotos. Situated near the Utah-Idaho border, Logan delivers a breath of fresh air and scenery for folks looking to escape the arid Salt Lake Valley. Unlike Sunset Crater itself, this smaller volcano has a trail that can be hiked. It was created when molten rock spewed from a crack in the ground, high into the air, solidified, then fell back as cinders or ash. Armed with a predilection for writing and photography, he loves to explore the outdoors with his wife, daughter, their two dogs, and an extended family of friends and in-laws. A 1 000ft-high cinder cone, which was active for 130 years following its eruption in 1064, is surrounded by hundreds of acres of black lava flows and ash, out of which sprouts an improbable pine forest. People had to relocate to nearby areas. The crater is the namesake for the Sunset Crater Beardtongue (Penstemon clutei). read all Latest earthquakes near Sunset Crater volcano, past 14 days [3] The volcano has partially revegetated, with pines and wildflowers. The last eruption took place sometime between about 1080 and 1150 AD. Cach day 1,000 nam nui lua o day phun len va phun xuat thach tao nen phong canh hien nay. Scientists determined these dates using a combination of tree-ring dating, dendrochemistry, paleomagnetic analysis, and archaeological evidence. On June 5, 2015, a website with satellite images reported steam rising from the crater, leading to fears that Sunset Crater was erupting. Death Valley National Park is home to some of the most extreme weather and epic terrain in the United States — plus some cool and quirk airbnbs. Sign up for our free email to join thousands of readers getting epic travel, hiking, camping and gear ideas every week. The monument lies 15 miles (24 km) northeast of Flagstaff and about 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Wupatki National Monument. Sunset Crater is a unique experience, with the opportunity to walk among the lava and learn about lava flows and interesting facts about how Sunset Crater formed around 1,000 years ago. The second is Lenox Crater Volcano, another cinder cone that is much older. Overview. Two lava flows, the Kana’a and the Bonito flows, effused from the base of the cone. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Just north of Flagstaff, an extinct volcano cone and a lava-trail hike are beautiful yet eerie reminders of the brutal forces of nature. This National Monument is on the same loop road as Wupatki National Monument, and well worth visiting. (Being from Florida I’ve had little experience with volcanoes) It only takes a few minutes to walk but it is a must do. The monument lies 15 miles (24 km) northeast of Flagstaff and about 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Wupatki National Monument. The Sunset Crater area is peppered with cinder cones formed from extinct volcanoes, and great swathes of lava, cinder, and ash, including the Bonita Lava Flow’s brittle black fields. It preserves a tiny portion of the hundreds of extinct volcanoes within the San Francisco Volcanic Field. Sunset Crater National Monument A Journey through Time. Ranger-guided tours are sometimes offered here too, and a .25 mile mini-loop is paved for handicapped access. Sunset Crater, located in north-central Arizona, is the youngest volcano found on the 130,000-square-mile (337,000 square kilometers) Colorado Plateau. A well-defined trail leads to Sunset Crater from where we were. July 12, 2016JPEG. Sunset Crater, Arizona Location: 35.4N, 111.5W Elevation: 8,026 feet (2,447 m) Sunset Crater. The best trail I hiked was the Lennox Crater Trail. 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