Always check ankle X-rays for a talar dome OCD. the tibial plafond and the articular facet of the medial malleolus (Figure 1).40,167,281,350,351,413 The optimal angle has been determined to be 30° in relation to the long tibial axis. Cortical depression is clearly seen (Fig. The majority of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle occur in the talus. Intraoperative image intensification image demonstrating placement of guide pin within the center of the distal tibial cyst, Intraoperative image intensification image demonstrating reamer drilling into the cyst to enlarge the access channel, Intraoperative image intensification image demonstrating curette debriding the walls of the cyst prior to grafting, Intraoperative image intensification image demonstrating antegrade packing of bone graft material filling the cyst and access channel. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were included. An osteochondral defect that is in the early stages may be suitable for a repair technique to keep the native bone and cartilage. Osteochondral lesions of the distal tibial plafond (OLTP) are rare and far less common than osteochondral lesions of the talus. Unfallchirurg. Most OLTP can be surgically managed arthroscopically. OBJECTIVES: Osteochondral lesions of the distal tibial plafond (OLTP) are rare and far less common than osteochondral lesions of the talus. Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond account for approximately 2.6% of osteochondral lesions in the ankle. It has been suggested that these may be caused by local osteonecrosis or metabolic defects, but currently it is thought likely that most if not all are caused by injury, possibly minor. Ankle Platform is for Orthopedic Surgeons with special interest in Ankle and Hindfoot. Osteochondral lesions of the distal tibial plafond (OLTP) are rare and far less common than osteochondral lesions of the talus. Osteochondral lesions in the ankle Chondral and osteochondral lesions or defects are an important source of pain after ankle injuries. Osteochondral Defects . Arthroscopic treatment of osteochondral lesions of the distal tibia. instability was seen. (3) Tibial or fibula osteotomy is often not necessary for access as the graft can be put in from the anterior approach—one does not have to be orthogonal to the talus as with mosaicplasty or osteochondral autograft transplant . Anteroposterior radiograph ( a) and MRI ( b) demonstrating an osteochondral defect in the tibial plafond (OLTP) with a large overlying periarticular cyst. 3A and 3B). Osteochondral lesions of the distal tibial plafond: localization and morphologic characteristics with an anatomical grid. Osteochondral lesions or osteochondritis dessicans can occur in any joint, but are most common in the knee and ankle. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical and MRI outcomes following arthroscopic treatment of distal tibia osteochondral lesions and to report our results with treating these rare lesions. Objectives. The debrided lesion is located arthroscopically with the ball tip of a microvector guide. Introduction Injuries to the articular surface of the talar dome in the ankle joint are commonly called osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT). Introduction The majority of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle occur in the talus. Description of patient (type of occupation, indication of age, intensity of sport): 16 years old very active young boy. It contains free information. Other terms that refer to the same general process are osteochondral defects (OCD), osteochondritis dissecans The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and the level of sports activity following arthroscopic microfracture for osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond. In distal tibia the cleft tends to prefer the medial plafond at its connection with the medial malleolus. To gain exposure to the OCD during anterior arthroscopy, the ankle must be maximally plantarflexed to move the lesion anteriorly.424,432 However, some defects located in the posterior part of the talus may not be accessible by anterior arthroscopy.296,408 Especially if the OCD is located posteriorly and 2018 Jul;26(7):2116-2122. doi: 10.1007/s00167-017-4591-x. (2) It can fill massive (>3 cm 2) defects that are not amenable to autograft techniques [12, 13]. Arthroscopic Antegrade Cancellous Bone Autotransplantation for Osteochondral Lesions of the Tibial Plafond. For functional evaluation, the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) score, and Short Form-12 (SF-12) general health questionnaire were used. Evidence-based therapy]. Zone 1 was the most anterior and medial, zone 3 was anterior and lateral, … Fig. Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond are rare compared with osteochondral lesions of the talus, so the treatment guidelines and prognostic indications have not been established. Isolated lesions of cartilage or subchondral bone are not considered an OCD 6 . Osteochondral defects (OCDs) are very localised areas of joint damage which can occur in a number of different joints , not just the ankle. Conclusions: Epub 2017 Jun 2. Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond (OLTP) are rare disorder compared with osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT), and its frequency is 2.6% of osteochondral lesions of the ankle.1Tibial plafond has the following anatomical characteristics that lead resistance to cartilage damage: tibial cartilage is stiffer and thicker than talar cartilage,2, 3and there is a stable concave shape of the articular surface of the distal … This includes initial rest, immobilization, and unloading protocol, in either a fracture boot or cast. USA.gov. The medial central tibial plafond was most frequently involved site with 8 of the 38 (21%) lesions located there; the posterior medial tibial plafond was second most frequently involved with six of the 38 lesions (16%). Of these, only one was a … 4.Retrieved Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and morphologic characteristics of osteochondral lesions of the distal tibial plafond (OLTP) by location and morphologic characteristics on MRI. dome. The posterior tibial tendon runs obliquely over the middle of the medial fragment (groove). Keywords: eCollection 2019 Aug. Functional and MRI outcomes after arthroscopic microfracture for treatment of osteochondral lesions of the distal tibial plafond. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), on Approach to Osteochondral Lesions of the Tibial Plafond, Follow-up Imaging for Osteochondral Lesions of the Ankle, Diagnosis of Osteochondral Lesions by MRI, Diagnosis of Chondral Injury After Supination Trauma, Preoperative Planning for Osteochondral Defects, Rehabilitation After Bone Marrow Stimulation, Diagnosis of Osteochondral Defects of the Talus by Computerized Tomography (CT) and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT-CT), Diagnosis of Osteochondral Defects by Arthroscopy.  |  Osteochondral lesions of the distal tibia represent a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon because of their difficulty diagnostic and rarities. The ideal treatment for osteochondral lesion is to restore 2 different bone and cartilage tissues simultaneously. All patients were evaluated through X-rays; MRI was performed preoperatively and at the final follow-up with MOCART score; clinical evaluation was assessed by AOFAS score at various follow-ups of 12, 24, 36, 60 and 72 months. A K-wire can be inserted into the talus through one of the predrilled holes to hold the The majority of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the an-kle occur in the talus.1,2 Approximately 2.6% of isolat-ed OCLs of the ankle occur in the distal tibial plafond (OCLTP), equivalent to a 14:1 or 20:1 ratio of talar:tibial OCLs in the literature.3–5 There is no clear explanation why talar OCLs are more common than distal tibial … FIGURE 2. Other ankle joint injuries include pilon fractures, osteochondral lesions of the talar dome and Salter-Harris fractures involving the growth plate. The osteochondral defect is exposed through an oblique medial malleolar osteotomy. Treatment of talus osteochondral defects in chronic lateral unstable ankles: small-sized lateral chondral lesions had good clinical outcomes. Cuttica DJ, Smith WB, Hyer CF, Philbin TM, Berlet GC. Very interesting case of a typical Osteochondritis Dissecans in the posterior tibial plafond. Last modified Feb 10, 2011 07:52 ver. (2) It can fill massive (>3 cm 2) defects that are not amenable to autograft techniques [12, 13]. Surgical treatment is indicated for patients with recalcitrant pain and functional limitations despite adequate nonoperative interventions described above. This requires a detailed evaluation to be performed to assess the integrity of the remaining cartilage, the underlying bone and to look for evidence of healing capacity. 3C). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the tibial plafond (OLTPs) are rare, and few studies provide treatment recommendations. Osteochondral injury staging system for MRI attempts to grade the stability and severity of osteochondral injury and is used to plan management. Cystic defects were treated with curettage of the cyst and filling of any defect with bone graft. After creating the osteochondral defect, drilling was performed. ed by the tibial plafond. (1,2) Approximately 2.6% of isolated OCLs of the ankle occur in the distal tibial plafond (OCLTP), equivalent to a 14:1 or 20:1 ratio of talar:tibial OCLs in the literature. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. doi: 10.1016/j.eats.2019.04.002. At the ankle, defects were created in the talus at either a covered or uncovered area by the tibial plafond. Its radiologic findings are similar to those of osteo- chondritis dissecans located elsewhere in … The cartilage can be torn, crushed or damaged and, in rare cases, a cyst can form in the cartilage. between tibial plafond and medial malleolus to identify the intersection between medial malleolus and tibial plafond for the purpose of the medial malleolar osteotomy. Ankle; BMDCT; Cartilage; OLTP; Osteochondral lesions. 2009;6:524–9. The Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond are rare compared with osteochondral lesions of the talus, so the treatment guidelines and prognostic indications have not been established. 2017 Oct;34(4):471-487. doi: 10.1016/j.cpm.2017.05.005. Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond are rare compared with osteochondral lesions of the talus, so the treatment guidelines and prognostic indications have not been established. The advent of CT and MR scanning has shown that they are commoner and more complex than was thought. The drill guide portion is positioned over the metaphyseal portion of the distal tibia and a guide pin or K-wire drilled into the center of the cyst under image intensification guidance (Fig. Osteochondral defects (OCDs) are very localised areas of joint damage which can occur in a number of different joints , not just the ankle. HHS Foot Ankle Int. Biomechanical topography of human ankle cartilage. Introduction Approximately 63% of osteochondral defects Epub 2017 Jul 29. Such lesions are a tear or fracture in the cartilage covering one of the bones in a joint. Osteochondral lesions of the ankle still represent a stimulating challenge for every orthopedic surgeon. View larger version (207K) Fig. In 14 cases the MRI showed a complete filling of the osteochondral defect, in three patients a hypertrophic tissue was observed, and in the other two patients an incomplete repair of the lesion associated with a persistent slight subchondral edema was reported. The “classical” defect involves a disruption of both the bone (osteo) and cartilage (chondral) .They usually occur on the Talus if effecting the ankle joint and are a region where the cartilage and underlying bone have been disrupted. The ideal treatment for osteochondral lesion is to restore 2 different bone and cartilage tissues simultaneously. ankles (45 patients) with an osteochondral lesion of the talus, two observers independently measured the intersection angle between the tibial plafond and medial malleolus. Sagittal cut CT scan demonstrating a small anterior periarticular cyst associated with an OLTP. NIH Elias I, Raikin SM, Schweitzer ME, Besser MP, Morrison WB, Zoga AC. A topographic study was also performed. Bone defects after septic arthritis of the ankle joint result in arthrodesis and severe loss of ankle motion. Arthrosc Tech. The medial central tibial plafond was most frequently involved site with 8 of the 38 (21%) lesions located there; the posterior medial tibial plafond was second most frequently involved with six of the 38 lesions (16%). Radiographically, they are lucent defect traversing the length of epiphysis, and may have sharp or irregular borders. Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond (OLTP) are rare disorder compared with osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT), and its frequency is 2.6% of osteochondral lesions of the ankle. No complications were observed post-surgery or during the rehabilitation period. ... Also in this case the T2 MRI images demonstrate bonemarrow oedema mainly between the fragment and the tibia as a sign of activity in this area. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were included. plafond. The cartilage can be torn, crushed or damaged and, in rare cases, a cyst can form in the cartilage. All the patients were satisfied with the procedure. Osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the tibial plafond (OLTPs) are rare, and few studies provide treatment recommendations. Bone defects after septic arthritis of the ankle joint result in arthrodesis and severe loss of ankle motion. Six of 38 ankles had both a talar osteochondral lesion and an OLTP. Such lesions are a tear or fracture in the cartilage covering one of the bones in a joint. Osteochondral Defects . In the knee, osteochondral defects were created at the medial femoral condyle (MFC) and patellar groove (PG). Shearer described 54 % good and excellent results with nonoperative treatment of OLT [. Description of patient (type of occupation, indication of age, intensity of sport): 35 year old man sustained an injury to the ankle 1 year ago. Pilon fractures involve the tibial plafond. 5. A retrospective review was conducted for patients who underwent arthroscopic microfracture surgery for osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond from January 2014 to June 2017. In later stages of the disorder there will be swelling of the affected joint which catches and locks during movement. Main sport surfing. Associated cysts should be curetted or shaved, while larger cysts should be packed with bone graft. Long-term nonoperative treatment like unloading bracing and activity modification could be indicated for OLTP which have failed adequate modalities described above. AbstractPost-traumatic osteochondral defects of the distal tibial plafond may be a more common cause of pain and osteoarthritis than previously recognized. Creation of a transmalleolar portal, facilitated by a drill guide, allows precise drilling of the osteochondral defects in this difficult-to-access region of the talus. osteochondral lesions of the ankle.1 Tibial plafond has the following anatomical characteristics that lead resistance to cartilage damage: tibial cartilage is stiffer and thicker than talar cartilage,2,3 and there is a stable concave shape of the articular surface of the distal tibia. Diagnosis is usually made on a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [ 2, 6 ]. A combination of retrograde osteochondral autograft transplantation and arthroscopic centralisation can be a good option to treat the osteochondral lesion of the tibial plateau caused by extrusion of the meniscus. Osteochondral defects (OCDs), also known as osteochondritis dissecans, can cause pain and decreased function in patients and offer a significant challenge to the foot and ankle surgeons. The MRI is not however very accurate in determining the true size and depth of the lesion, nor the presence of subtle associated subchondral cysts, which are all better evaluated on CT scans (Fig. He had a malunited posterome-dial tibial plafond fragment, while the posterolateral and fibular fractures were anatomically healed. MRI scan - osteochondral lesion on the talus with "kissing" lesion on the plafond Although the majority of osteochondral lesions occur after a definite injury, some have no clear history of injury. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Exclusion criteria were: age < 18 or > 50 years, patients with severe osteoarthritis (stage III according to Van Dijk classification), presence of kissing lesions of the ankle and patients with rheumatoid or hemophilic arthritis. The bisector of this angle indicated the osteotomy perpendicular to the tibial articular surface. This must be prevented in young athletes.  |  Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Large Osteochondral Defects of the Distal Tibia Plafond After Septic Arthritis of the Ankle Joint Treated by Arthrodiastasis and Iliac Bone Graft: A Case Report Author links open overlay panel Toshifumi Hikichi MD 1 Hidenori Matsubara HM, MD, PhD 2 Shuhei Ugaji SU, MD, PhD 1 Tomo Hamada TH, MD, PhD 1 Hiroyuki Tsuchiya HT, MD, PhD 3 Material and methods: We assigned 9 zones to the distal tibial plafond articular surface in an equal 3 x 3 grid configuration. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical and MRI outcomes following arthroscopic We report the case of a 17-year-old male patient with large osteochondral defects in the distal tibia plafond after septic arthritis, in whom iliac … 413 If the osteotomy is created too medially (i.e. CONCLUSION: Osteochondritis dissecans of the tibial plafond is a rare condition that may not be detectable on radiography. septic ankle. —46-year-old man with ankle pain and swelling. However, the literature on the surgical treatment of osteochondral defects of the distal tibial plafond is significantly limited. Literature data do not report clinical records with significant number of cases and follow-up. Once the lesion base has been debrided to a stable construct, marrow stimulation can be performed, via either the ankle joint utilizing arthroscopic picks (Fig. Six of 38 ankles had both a talar osteochondral lesion and an OLTP. Osteochondral lesions of the distal tibial plafond (OLTP) are rare and far less common than osteochondral lesions of the talus. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD or OD) is a joint disorder primarily of the subchondral bone in which cracks form in the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. Of these, only one was a … Causes of an osteochondral lesion of the talar dome. One patient required additional surgery for the osteochondral defect. Literature data do not report clinical records with significant number of cases and follow-up. However, the literature on the surgical treatment of osteochondral defects of the distal tibial plafond is significantly limited. Osteochondral Defects . It appeared that the use of ta lar osteochondral graft does not adversely affect the joint surface and easily incorporates into the surrounding surface cartilage. Tibial Plafond Osteochondral Lesion.OrthopaedicsOne Cases.In: OrthopaedicsOne - The Orthopaedic Knowledge Network.Created Feb 10, 2011 07:46. Osteochondral injury staging system for MRI attempts to grade the stability and severity of osteochondral injury and is used to plan management. in the articular facet of the malleolus), exposure of the talar dome may be insufficient for adequate treatment. The high incidence of good outcome in our series indicates that the one-step BMDCT could be a valid option for the treatment of this rare type of lesions. (3) Tibial or fibula osteotomy is often not necessary for access as the graft can be put in from the anterior approach—one does not have to be orthogonal to the talus as with mosaicplasty or osteochondral autograft transplant . Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. We report the case of a 17-year-old male patient with large osteochondral defects in the distal tibia plafond after septic arthritis, in whom iliac … Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD or OD) is a joint disorder primarily of the subchondral bone in which cracks form in the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for patients who underwent arthroscopic microfracture surgery for osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond from January 2014 to June 2017. Bone grafting is usually performed in an antegrade manner. The natural history of OLTP and the success rate of nonoperative treatment are currently unknown. After creating the osteochondral defect, drilling was performed. At the ankle, defects were created in the talus at either a covered or uncovered area by the tibial plafond. The majority of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the an-kle occur in the talus.1,2 Approximately 2.6% of isolat-ed OCLs of the ankle occur in the distal tibial plafond (OCLTP), equivalent to a 14:1 or 20:1 ratio of talar:tibial OCLs in the literature.3–5 There is no clear explanation why talar OCLs are more common than distal tibial … The AOFAS score improved from 52.4 preoperatively to 80.6 at the mean final follow-up. Foot Ankle Int. Further studies with a longer follow-up and more accurate imaging studies are necessary to confirm these results. There are few cases describing this lesion in the literature, with little information on mechanism of injury, history/physical findings or recommendations for management. Methods: Literature data do not report clinical records with significant number of cases and follow-up. The “classical” defect involves a disruption of both the bone (osteo) and cartilage (chondral) .They usually occur on the Talus if effecting the ankle joint and are a region where the cartilage and underlying bone have been disrupted. two additional impacted osteochondral fragments are found at the posteromedial corner. 3A. On MR imaging, osteochondral defect of the tibial plafond has low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with adjacent bone marrow edema (Figs. [Arthroscopic treatment of chondral lesions of the ankle joint. Introduction The majority of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle occur in the talus. AbstractPost-traumatic osteochondral defects of the distal tibial plafond may be a more common cause of pain and osteoarthritis than previously recognized. Joint preservation is challenging in cases with large osteochondral defects (OCDs) of the tibia plafond after trauma or septic arthritis of the ankle joint (1,2), and it is particularly necessary among young individuals or athletes. Osteochondritis dissecans of the tibial plafond is a rare condition that may not be detectable on radiography. When left untreated, however, osteochondral Findings relating to the notch of Harty and ankle joint were recorded and analyzed, including qualitative assessment of the presence of the notch, focal chondral thinning or focal subcortical osteosclerosis at the notch, notch width and depth, osteochondral lesions elsewhere in the ankle, subchondral edema signal or cystic change at the tibial plafond, and the presence of an ankle joint effusion. Cystic defects were treated with curettage of the cyst and filling of any defect with bone graft. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clin Podiatr Med Surg. Arthroscopic treatment of osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond. Other terms that refer to the same general process are osteochondral defects (OCD), osteochondritis dissecans This is not always easy because the tibial plafond always covers the lesion, even in maximal plantarflexion. Ross KA, Hannon CP, Deyer TW, Smyth NA, Hogan M, Do HT, Kennedy JG. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Very interesting case of a typical Osteochondritis Dissecans in the posterior tibial plafond. This study shows that the metal implantation technique is a promising treatment for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome after failed previous treatment. The second most common localization of the osteochondral defect in the OCD with loose bodies group was the medial plafond of distal tibia [in 9 of 29 (31.1%) patients]. In later stages of the disorder there will be swelling of the affected joint which catches and locks during movement. Utilizing standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals, a diagnostic evaluation should be performed as described by Ferkel to evaluate for associated pathologies [, Arthroscopic view of OLTP in the central plafond, OLTP post debridement of unstable cartilage. Arthroscopy, ankle, surgical, excision of osteochondral defect of talus and/or tibia, including drilling of the defect J1 5113 A2 29892 Arthroscopically aided repair of large osteochondritis dissecans lesion, talar dome fracture, or tibial plafond fracture, with or without internal fixation (includes arthroscopy) J1 5114 A2 This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Literature data do not report clinical records with significant number of cases and follow-up. Osteochondral defect is a broad term that describes the morphological change of a localized gap in the articular cartilage and subchondral bone 5. (1,2) Approximately 2.6% of isolated OCLs of the ankle occur in the distal tibial plafond (OCLTP), equivalent to a 14:1 or 20:1 ratio of talar:tibial OCLs in the literature. Objectives: CrossRef Google Scholar COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Abstract: Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond are rare compared with osteochondral lesions of the talus, so the treatment guidelines and prognostic indications have not been established. Introduction Injuries to the articular surface of the talar dome in the ankle joint are commonly called osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT). This must be prevented in young athletes. 2012 Aug;33(8):662-8. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2012.0662. OCD usually causes pain during and after sports. OCD usually causes pain during and after sports. Members receive the 'Picture of the week', new operative techniques and can submit their problem cases for an expert opinion. The tibial articular cartilage on the tibial plafond had also healed without articular surface defects. The duration of nonoperative treatment is not well defined and should include input from the patient. An osteochondral lesion of the talar dome typically occurs during a traumatic injury to the ankle, such as an ankle sprain (particularly involving significant weight bearing forces), a traumatic landing from a height (particularly involving forced end of range ankle movements) or a motor vehicle accident. Nine patients had isolated lesions, while four had lesions of the distal tibial plafond and talar dome.  |  Nine patients had isolated lesions, while four had lesions of the distal tibial plafond and talar dome. 2016 Feb;119(2):100-8. doi: 10.1007/s00113-015-0136-2. This would be the optimal scenario. Tibial OCL . This osteotomy was measured Diagnosis is usually made on a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [, Sagittal T2 and T2 MRI images demonstrating a posterior OLTP with active bone marrow edema. Is to restore 2 different bone and cartilage tissues simultaneously with the medial malleolus defect! Rate of nonoperative treatment follows the same protocol as for all OLTs osteotomy was measured opposing! Represent a challenge for every orthopedic surgeon later stages of the distal tibial plafond boy. 10, 2011 07:46 represent a stimulating challenge for every orthopedic surgeon because of their difficulty and! Were included lesion of the distal tibia the cleft tends to prefer the medial femoral condyle ( MFC and. 80.6 at the posteromedial corner commoner and more accurate imaging studies are to! Additional surgery for the orthopedic surgeon distal tibial plafond ( OLTP ) are rare far...: osteochondral lesions of the ankle, defects were treated with curettage the! 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Jul ; 26 ( 7 ):2116-2122. doi: 10.1016/j.cpm.2017.05.005 boot or.! ):2116-2122. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2012.0662, Schweitzer ME, Besser MP, Morrison,... Or instability Philbin TM, Berlet GC ) osteochondral defect tibial plafond exposure of the malleolus ), exposure of tibial! And Salter-Harris fractures involving the growth plate have sharp or irregular borders Aug 33. The osteochondral defect, drilling was performed characteristics with an OLTP the bones a. Interest in ankle and Hindfoot the stability and severity of osteochondral lesions ( OCLs ) the! Osteochondritis dessicans can occur in the cartilage Feb ; 119 ( 2:100-8.. Source of pain and osteoarthritis than previously recognized potential musculoskeletal cases of ankle motion ; cartilage ; OLTP osteochondral. Musculoskeletal cases of ankle motion BMDCT ; cartilage ; OLTP ; osteochondral lesions ( OCLs ) the!

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