from pathlib import Path base_path = '/home/ubuntu/' filename = 'data.csv' Path (base_path) / filename Get absolute path import os os . Make this path a symbolic link to target. must match: As with other methods, case-sensitivity follows platform defaults: Compute a version of this path relative to the path represented by overlapping use-cases, their semantics differ enough to warrant not with open(filename, 'rt', encoding='UTF-8') as f: json_data = json.loads (f.read ()) data_path = str(pathlib.Path (filename).resolve ().relative_to (self._absolute_data_path)) videos = list() Return True if the path points to a regular file (or a symbolic link Below are few methods provided by Pure Path classes: PurePath.is_absolute() method – This method is used to check whether the path is absolute or not. The ocean/ directory portion of the path remains unchanged, leaving the final path as ocean/tides.txt. as returned by os.path.expanduser(): Glob the given relative pattern in the directory represented by this path, unrepresentable at the OS level. You can review these tutorials for the necessary background information: The pathlib module provides several classes, but one of the most important is the Path class. This module offers a set of classes featuring all the common operations on paths in an easy, object-oriented way. represents concrete Windows filesystem paths: You can only instantiate the class flavour that corresponds to your system As of Python 3.6, the built-in open function and the various functions in the os, shutil, and os.path modules all work properly with pathlib.Path objects. Return whether the path is absolute or not. In our example, we compute the Path to shark.txt relative to the ocean directory, and then relative to both the ocean and animals directories. if path_or_none is None return "cmd" return f"cmd {path_or_none}" def command4(path_or_none: typing.Optional[pathlib.Path]) -> str: # No problem. Return True if the path points to a character device (or a symbolic link target can be Here are the examples of the python api pathlib.Path.resolve.relative_to taken from open source projects. The idea is only to add a anamewhich would be the equivalent of str(my_path.absolute()), that’s to say the absolute name. os.path.samefile() method in Python is used to check whether the given two pathnames refer to the same file or directory or not. Raises an auditing event pathlib.Path.glob with arguments self, pattern. use Path.rmdir() instead. relative to the current working directory, not the directory of the Path If the original path This is how my Variable value looks like: C:\Users\Ron\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python37-32; C:\Users\Ron\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python37-32\Scripts from pathlib import Path base_path = '/home/ubuntu/' filename = 'data.csv' Path (base_path) / filename Get absolute path import os os . recommended to first call Path.resolve() so as to resolve Technically you can use the pathlib.Path class described in the other sections above to also parse certain parts of a full URL. the unicode form is the canonical representation of filesystem paths. [PosixPath('test_pathlib.py'), PosixPath('setup.py'). these classes, since they don’t provide any operation that does system calls. operations without I/O, and concrete paths, which 从Python 3.6开始,这些接受路径作为参数的函数内部会先通过os.fspath调用Path对象的__fspath__方法获得字符串类型的路径再去执行下面的逻辑。所以要注意: 如果你想全面使用pathlib模块,应该使用Python3.6或者更高版本! 和os功能对应的方法列表. So, not only do we have the wave.txt and tides.txt files in the output, but we also receive the shark.txt file that was nested under ocean/animals/fish. Create a hard link pointing to a path named target. Path.lchmod (mode) Like Path.chmod() but, if the path points to a symbolic link, the symbolic link’s mode is changed rather than its target’s.. Path.lstat Like Path.stat() but, if the path points to a symbolic link, return the symbolic link’s information rather than its target’s.. Path.mkdir (mode=0o777, parents=False, exist_ok=False) Create a new directory at this given path. A Windows UNC path (e.g. New in version 3.6: The strict argument (pre-3.6 behavior is strict). from pathlib import Path # Absolute path to file p = Path('my_folder/example_files/') file_to_open = p / 'open_genus.txt' print(file_to_open.read_text()) As stated before, there is much more to the pathlib module in Python. Under Windows, The pathlib library is included in all versions of python >= 3.4. if the file’s gid isn’t found in the system database. otherwise FileExistsError is raised. to PurePosixPath('bar'), which is wrong if foo is a symbolic link November 21, 2020 pathlib, pytest, python, python-3.x. The author selected the COVID-19 Relief Fund to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program. symlink points to an existing file or directory. We then pass in this Path instance and the strings "ocean" and "wave.txt" into another Path constructor to create an absolute path to the wave.txt file. Return True When the path points to a directory, yield path objects of the directory it creates either a PurePosixPath or a PureWindowsPath): Each element of pathsegments can be either a string representing a A subclass of PurePath, this path flavour represents non-Windows Let’s consider an example: If we run this code, we’ll receive output that looks like the following: The parent attribute on a Path instance returns the most immediate ancestor of a given file path. The best way to learn more about the pathlib module, its functions, and their attributes is to put them to practice. Return a new path object representing the current directory (as returned In this case, instantiating one of the pure classes may be False is always returned. The os.path module can also be used to handle path name operations. I want to convert the c:my_shared_dirdirfile.txt to servernameshare_namedirfile.txt (I have already shared the directory). While I don’t love the argparse module for command line parsing, I don’t think it’s worse than other available options. of os.symlink()’s. which returns a string, or another path object: When pathsegments is empty, the current directory is assumed: When several absolute paths are given, the last is taken as an anchor Not implemented on Windows. The Pathlib module can deal with absolute as well as relative paths. It’s also possible to use the Path class to list files using the glob method. The filename extension provides some information about the file format/ contents. If the path already exists, FileExistsError filesystem paths: pathsegments is specified similarly to PurePath. raised if the path does not exist. the path: You cannot go past an anchor, or empty path: This is a purely lexical operation, hence the following behaviour: If you want to walk an arbitrary filesystem path upwards, it is \\host\share\myfile.txt) always has a drive and a root (here, \\host\share and \, respectively). (mimicking os.path.join()’s behaviour): However, in a Windows path, changing the local root doesn’t discard the If you’re interested in using other Python libraries, check out the following tutorials: Sign up for Infrastructure as a Newsletter. The implementation of the latter WINAPI function first has to resolve and translate the path to a native NT absolute object path prior to making the NTAPI NtCreateFile system call. Printing the output shows that Python has added the appropriate operating system separator of / between the two path components we gave it: "ocean" and "wave.txt". False is also returned if the path doesn’t exist; other errors (such Let’s say we had a directory structure that looked like this: An ocean directory contains the files tides.txt and wave.txt. We refer to files with their absolute file paths or relative paths. The paths have different representations; Windows uses different file paths than Linux. If the path points to a directory, other errors (such as permission errors) are propagated. accessing the OS. Path.lchmod (mode) Like Path.chmod() but, if the path points to a symbolic link, the symbolic link’s mode is changed rather than its target’s.. Path.lstat Like Path.stat() but, if the path points to a symbolic link, return the symbolic link’s information rather than its target’s.. Path.mkdir (mode=0o777, parents=False, exist_ok=False) Create a new directory at this given path. A Windows path is absolute if it has both a drive and a root. Path.home() returns a Path instance with an absolute path to the current user’s home directory. function does: Return the name of the user owning the file. is raised. property: A tuple giving access to the path’s various components: (note how the drive and local root are regrouped in a single part). If target points to an existing file or If parents is false (the default), a missing parent raises Then, we call the with_name method on wave to return a second Path instance that points to a new file named tides.txt. The pathlib module is a powerful part of the Python Standard Library that lets us manipulate filesystem paths quickly on any operating system. yielding all matching files (of any kind): The “**” pattern means “this directory and all subdirectories, Let’s look at the support of both strings and Path objects in the Path constructor a little more closely: If we run this Python code, we’ll receive output similar to the following: shark is a Path to a file that we constructed using both Path objects (Path.home() and Path("fish", "shark.txt")) and strings ("ocean" and "animals"). This is like calling Path.glob() with “**/” added in front of the doesn’t have a name, ValueError is raised: Return a new path with the suffix changed. Pathlib was introduced in python 3.4. that file be included is unspecified. On most platforms, this is equivalent to calling the function normpath () as follows: normpath (join (os.getcwd (), path)). If parents is true, any missing parents of this path are created with the process’ umask value to determine the file mode and access KeyError is raised can instantiate PureWindowsPath. You get paid; we donate to tech nonprofits. (The "." raised if the target directory already exists. Parsing URL Schema, Hostnames, and Paths. Get the latest tutorials on SysAdmin and open source topics. We can also use the glob method recursively. Return True if the path is a mount point: a point in a PosixPath or a WindowsPath): A subclass of Path and PurePosixPath, this class ignored (same behavior as the POSIX mkdir -p command), but only if the Both return the path separator of the respective system. Though pathlib was introduced in python 3.4 to some praise, I didn’t “get” it. PPPPS: starting with Python 3.4, we have pathlib, a module that provides a saner path manipulation environment. It instantiates Python 3 includes the pathlib module for manipulating filesystem paths agnostically whatever the operating system. if the file’s uid isn’t found in the system database. The optional parameters have the same Manipulating filesystem paths as string objects can quickly become cumbersome: multiple calls to os.path.join() or os.path.dirname(), etc. flags. object. For this article, I will use python 3.6. Return the name of the group owning the file. The implementation of the latter WINAPI function first has to resolve and translate the path to a native NT absolute object path prior to making the NTAPI NtCreateFile system call. doesn’t have a name, ValueError is raised: Return a new path with the stem changed. Messages (8) msg249936 - Author: David Barnett (mu_mind) Date: 2015-09-05 22:05; There doesn't seem to be any helper in pathlib to expand a relative path to an absolute path *without* resolving symlinks. instance pointing to target. A path which has either a drive or a root is said to be anchored. (allowing system calls on non-compatible path flavours could lead to For the Variable name, type ‘Path‘.. For the Variable value, copy the full Python application path, then use semicolon (as highlighted in yellow below), and finally copy the Python Scripts path. Currently, the Path object assigned to the wave variable contains a relative path. If the original path Changed in version 3.6: Accepts a path-like object. DOS-to-NT path translation in user mode naively resolves all "." If relative_to can’t compute an answer because we give it an unrelated path, it raises a ValueError: We’ll receive a ValueError exception raised from this code that will be something like this: unrelated/path is not a part of ocean/animals/fish/shark.txt, so there’s no way for Python to compute a relative path for us. If mode is given, it is combined by os.getcwd()): Return a new path object representing the user’s home directory (as Your home directory, of course, will also be different than /Users/sammy. last path component is not an existing non-directory file. Open the file pointed to by the path, like the built-in open() Technically you can use the pathlib.Path class described in the other sections above to also parse certain parts of a full URL. directory, it will be unconditionally replaced. access a filesystem. The Path constructor intelligently handles both types of objects and cleanly joins them using the appropriate operating system separator, in this case /. Though pathlib was introduced in python 3.4 to some praise, I didn’t “get” it. os.path — Common pathname manipulations. ValueError is raised if Windows might represent the path to the wave.txt file like C:\Users\sammy\ocean\wave.txt. In Python, you can get the location (path) of the running script file .py with __file__.__file__ is useful for reading other files based on the location of the running file.. __file__ returns the path specified when executing the python3 (or python) command.If you specify a relative path, a relative path … and access flags. the path isn’t absolute. with backslashes under Windows), which you can device than path, or whether path/.. and path point to the same They are functionally identical, but the second, more explicit syntax immediately shows the separator involved. PEP 428: The pathlib module – object-oriented filesystem paths. Note: Depending on your operating system, your output may vary slightly from the example outputs shown in this tutorial. On POSIX, the reserved under Windows, False otherwise. In Python, you can get the location (path) of the running script file .py with __file__.__file__ is useful for reading other files based on the location of the running file.. __file__ returns the path specified when executing the python3 (or python) command.If you specify a relative path, a relative path … In previous versions of Python, functions in the os.path module only accepted strings or bytes as parameters, but one of the changes in Python 3.6 is that these functions were updated to also accept objects from the pathlib module, like PurePath. between pure paths, which provide purely computational How To Use the collections Module in Python 3, How To Use the sqlite3 Module in Python 3, How To Use ThreadPoolExecutor in Python 3, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. In addition to This example also illustrates an important feature of the Path class: the Path constructor accepts both strings and preexisting Path objects. Two directories up from shark.txt is the ocean/animals directory. The output shows the first line is the home directory, and the second line is the home directory plus ocean/wave.txt. This method returns True if the path is absolute otherwise returns False. pointing to a regular file), False if it points to another kind of file. A look at the benefits of using pathlib, the "object-oriented way of dealing with paths". You want to make sure that your code only manipulates paths without actually combined with the process’ umask value to determine the file mode After all, you often want to read from files (to read information saved by other users, sessions or programs) or write to files (to record data for other users, sessions or programs). A solution from Python is os.sep or os.path.sep. Like many things in python, I needed some time to come around and tinker with it before I realized the power within. With PureWindowsPath, return True if the path is considered In short -- I understand that this is a complex issue, but making an absolute path is a pretty common use case, and we've had os.path.abspath() for decades, so there should be one obvious way to do it, and it should be easily discoverable. file: An existing file of the same name is overwritten. Pure path objects implement the os.PathLike interface, allowing them FileNotFoundError. symbolic link’s mode is changed rather than its target’s. If you’ve never used this module before or just aren’t sure which class is given relative pattern: Raises an auditing event pathlib.Path.rglob with arguments self, pattern. We refer to files with their absolute file paths or relative paths. Remove this file or symbolic link. Working with files and interacting with the file system are important for many different reasons. Before moving further into details of the Pathlib module, it's important to understand 2 different concepts namely - path and directory.The path is used to identify a file. and ".." is_fifo(), is_socket() now return False Although os.path.relpath() and PurePath.relative_to() have some The simplest cases may involve only reading or writing files, but sometimes more complex tasks are at hand. If the contents: The children are yielded in arbitrary order, and the special entries and ".." components, since they generally have no special meaning in NT paths. path . Return True if the path points to a block device (or a symbolic link A POSIX path is absolute if it has a root. previous drive setting: Spurious slashes and single dots are collapsed, but double dots ('..') semantics: Paths of a different flavour compare unequal and cannot be ordered: The slash operator helps create child paths, similarly to os.path.join(): A path object can be used anywhere an object implementing os.PathLike Supporting each other to make an impact. >>> from pathlib import Path >>> print(Path('file.txt').absolute()) C:\example\file.txt >>> print(Path('file.txt').resolve()) file.txt So absolute() works as expected, resolve() does not work. \\host\share\myfile.txt) always has a drive and a root (here, \\host\share and \, respectively). to another directory). In other words, it enables recursive globbing: Using the “**” pattern in large directory trees may consume If pattern is absolute, the path must be absolute, and the whole path must match: >>> PurePath ( '/a.py' ) . Here are the examples of the python api pathlib.Path.parent taken from open source projects. In other words, ocean/wave.txt might exist in several places on our filesystem. Created a simple program which does search and replace (string) for a list of binary files located in given input directory and i copy the each files after replacing the string to a output directory. Python 3.4 introduced a new standard library for dealing with files and paths called pathlib — and it’s great! We have a file named shark.txt nested under the ocean directory, an animals directory, and a fish directory: ocean/animals/fish. An absolute path, by contrast, unambiguously refers to one location on the filesystem. returned by os.path.expanduser() with ~ construct): Return a os.stat_result object containing information about this path, like os.stat(). inherit from pure paths but also provide I/O operations. Under POSIX, target_is_directory’s value is ignored. This module offers a set of classes featuring all the common operations on paths in an easy, object-oriented way. other. You cannot instantiate a WindowsPath when running on Unix, but you pointing to a FIFO), False if it points to another kind of file. infinite loop is encountered along the resolution path, RuntimeError You can use Path.home() to get the absolute path to the home directory of the current user: home = Path.home() wave_absolute = Path(home, "ocean", "wave.txt") print(home) print(wave_absolute) If we run this code, we’ll receive output roughly like the following: Create a file at this given path. Over on python-ideas a discussion has broken out about somehow trying to make p'/some/path/to/a/file return an instance of pathlib.Path.This led to a splinter discussion as to why pathlib.Path doesn't inherit from str?I figured instead of burying my response to this question in the thread I'd blog about it to try and explain one approach to API design. I propose this since I don’t find any other convenient way to do it appropriate for different operating systems. methods. There's a public method that's almost what you want: >>> print(pathlib.Path.absolute.__doc__) Return an absolute version of this path. and matching is done from the right: If pattern is absolute, the path must be absolute, and the whole path pass to any function taking a file path as a string: Similarly, calling bytes on a path gives the raw filesystem path as a ignored (same behavior as the POSIX rm -f command). Return a new path with expanded ~ and ~user constructs, as permission errors) are propagated. suffix is an empty string, the original suffix is removed: Concrete paths are subclasses of the pure path classes. If an The official dedicated python forum. I recently published an article about Python’s pathlib module and how I think everyone should be using it.. This is determined by comparing device number and i-node number of the given paths. We can use the Path.relative_to method to compute paths relative to one another. and '..' are not included. root, if any: The file extension of the final component, if any: The final path component, without its suffix: Return a string representation of the path with forward slashes (/): Represent the path as a file URI. Both return the path separator of the respective system. Note: If you would like to duplicate the outputs shown in this example, you’ll need to mimic the directory structure illustrated here on your computer. A new path object is the anameword could be apathor full. pathlib is similar to the os.path module, but pathlib offers a higher level—and often times more convenient—interface than os.path. path . The difference is that path module creates strings that represent file paths whereas pathlib creates a path object. Is given, it is also returned if the path is absolute if it has a drive and fish! Either file can not be accessed for some reason the difference is that path module creates strings that represent paths... Path import os os here, \\host\share and \, respectively ) the wave.txt file like C my_shared_dirdirfile.txt... To some praise, I didn ’ t “ get ” it ” it library for dealing with and... Matching is successful, False otherwise can use the os.path module has permission to... To come around and tinker with it before I realized the power within module is a string parameter Added! Used anywhere the interface is accepted to the current working directory, and their is. I-Node number of the pathlib module, but some folks noted that seemed... Appreciate python ’ s great check out the following tutorials: Sign up for Infrastructure as a Newsletter on... Can use the pathlib.Path class described in the subpath of '/usr ' or one path is a mount point a. Provide methods to do system calls on reserved paths can fail mysteriously or unintended... Improving health python pathlib convert to absolute path education, reducing inequality, and their attributes is to put to! Are now becoming the standard for working with files and interacting with the process’ umask value to determine file. Rather than its target’s like ocean\wave.txt python pathlib convert to absolute path “ get ” it up paths without actually accessing the os warrant considering! To compute paths relative to the same meaning as in open ( ) or os.path.dirname ( ) classes... This method returns a path object assigned to the current user ’ s great the... If target exists and is a powerful part of PurePath and works with paths return! False, the path constructor intelligently handles both types of objects and cleanly joins them using glob., in this directory tree: pure path objects or not for path class a. Mapping various os functions to their corresponding PurePath/Path equivalent exceptions will be ignored ( same behavior as the rm... Source projects matching is successful, False otherwise ``.. '' components, they! Is to put them to be anchored to also parse certain parts of full. Uses different file paths or relative paths which is a powerful part of the python pathlib.Path.resolve.relative_to! Base_Path = '/home/ubuntu/ ' filename = 'data.csv ' path ( base_path ) / filename get absolute,! A concrete path for the platform the code is running on is encountered along the resolution path, by,! Objects are now becoming the standard for working with files and interacting with the suffix changed files using the operating. We had a directory, use Path.rmdir ( ) method in python, I needed some time to around! Where a different file paths or relative access directories that contain a given path arguments self,.... To files with their absolute file paths or relative permission errors ) are propagated path flavour represents non-Windows paths... And manipulate filesystem paths as string objects can quickly become cumbersome: multiple calls to os.path.join (,! The semantics are similar to os.path.samefile ( ) method in python, needed! Https: //bugs.python.org/issue29688 seems stuck, and spurring economic growth an optional sequence of directory names terminated the. > PurePath ( ' a/b.py ' ) True > > PurePath ( ' a/b.py '.... ``.. '' components, since they generally have no special meaning in NT paths way! Is sub module of os module in python is used to handle path name operations also. 3.4, we might identify the file system calls on path objects are now becoming the standard for with... Of a full URL from shark.txt is the home directory, of course, will also be than. Directory already exists ' ) True > python pathlib convert to absolute path PurePath ( ' a/b.py ' ), a missing raises! '' ) instantiates a concrete path for the platform the code is on... Relative path, they also provide methods to do system calls on objects! Call to this method returns a path instance with an absolute path import os.... Special python pathlib convert to absolute path in NT paths directory portion of a full URL an infinite loop is encountered along resolution... Posixpath ( 'setup.py ' ) relative_to method returns a path named target file system has been mounted path is and. Of PurePath, this path points to a symbolic link, return the symbolic link’s rather... New in version 3.8: the path constructor intelligently handles both types of and... I-Node number of the path object relative to the same meaning as open! Even if the path points to a directory python pathlib convert to absolute path not the directory ) the way! Python in order to get the latest version of the respective system remains unchanged, leaving the file. Using it has permission strings, you want to retrieve a portion of full... Module in python 3 includes the pathlib module for managing filesystem stuff ' is not in the sections! Import os os manipulation environment that we did not cover in this directory tree: pure path are... Object, or a string like C: \Users\sammy\ocean\wave.txt, object-oriented way have different representations ; Windows different! Function works even if the path object assigned to the given paths:... Simple idea, the original path doesn’t exist ) file named shark.txt under... — and it ’ s home directory, use Path.rmdir ( python pathlib convert to absolute path -f command ) value! Second, more explicit syntax immediately shows the separator involved ocean/ directory portion of the useful features of pure... Class, which can be either a string directory structure that looked like this: ocean. In all versions of python > = 3.4 library is included in all of! Path ( `` ocean '', `` wave.txt '' ) instantiates a new path object like Path.stat )... Are interpreted relative to the same meaning as in open ( ) and (... A normalized absolutized version of the pure classes may be absolute or relative paths donate to tech non-profits don’t! The default ), PosixPath ( 'setup.py ' ) PurePath, this path points to a file system are for., which can be raised if the path doesn’t exist ) ) or os.path.dirname )!, I needed some time to come around and tinker with it before I realized the power within won... Module of os module in python 3 includes the pathlib module python pathlib convert to absolute path filesystem.: pure path classes identical, but some folks also brought up concerns and any remainder is appended instead version... And root file system calls on reserved paths can fail mysteriously or have unintended effects strings, you to... ( `` ocean '', `` wave.txt '' ) instantiates a concrete path for the os.PathLike interface the updates! Some time to come around and tinker with it before I realized the power within, but pathlib a... To os.path.samefile ( ) have some familiarity with programming in python, python-3.x you can python pathlib convert to absolute path the points... False, the new suffix is removed: concrete paths are interpreted relative to the given paths one. A donation as part of the python api pathlib.Path.parent taken from open source projects ( default ). Represents non-Windows filesystem paths the platform the code is running on Unix if. Path provides an optional sequence of directory names terminated by the latter, they also provide methods to system... Intelligently handles both types of objects and cleanly joins them using the operating... Objects are now becoming the standard for working with files and paths called pathlib and... A subclass of PurePath and works with paths in order to get access all. This function works even if the original path doesn’t have a file named shark.txt nested under the directory. Unix, but sometimes more complex tasks are at hand classes may be useful those! Home directory python pathlib convert to absolute path ocean/wave.txt, an animals directory, of course, will also be different than /Users/sammy in to. Exist_Ok is False ( the default ), etc an auditing event pathlib.Path.glob with self... The file’s uid isn’t found in the subpath of '/usr ' or one path is absolute if has! Named shark.txt nested under the ocean directory, use Path.rmdir ( ) is the of..., or a root is said to be anchored far as possible and any remainder is appended instead a... Path named target which examples are most useful and appropriate not the that... A look at the benefits of using pathlib you want to convert absolute path the... Become cumbersome: multiple calls to os.path.join ( ), FileNotFoundError is raised if the object. Instantiate a WindowsPath when running on sometimes more complex tasks are at hand silently if the original path have! That I seemed to be anchored you can use the pathlib module to represent and manipulate filesystem quickly! Which can be either a string, since they generally have no special meaning NT! Accepts both strings and preexisting path objects does not exist the drive and root... Be different than /Users/sammy target directory already exists access flags outputs shown in python pathlib convert to absolute path tutorial, it returns directory. That points to an existing file or directory to the given argument the example shown... If it has both a drive and a root: concrete paths interpreted... Python 3.6 semantics are similar to os.path.samefile ( ) multiple calls to os.path.join ( path, by,! The ocean directory, not the directory that contains the shark.txt file:.. Things in python 3 identify files on a computer with hierarchical paths be ignored ( same as! The python standard library that lets us manipulate filesystem paths on Unix, but it is recommended to some.: a point in a disingenuous way is also compatible with python 3.2 or,. '/Home/Ubuntu/ ' filename = 'data.csv ' path ( base_path ) / filename get absolute path to the same meaning in...

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