He is widely regarded as the founder of Christian psychology and of existential psychology and therapy. Darwin publishes Origin of Species. Søren Kierkegaard passed away on the 11 November 1855. 87-90. The influence of Kierkegaards father on his work has been frequently noted. [8] Ernest Becker based his 1974 Pulitzer Prize book, The Denial of Death, on the writings of Kierkegaard, Freud and Otto Rank. His father was a firmly committed to a strict approach to faith and life and sought to ensure that his family would grow up within a firmly Lutheran household. The Corsair took the bait, and for months Kierkegaard was the target of raucous ridicule, the greatest butt of jokes in Copenhagen. Michael Kierkegaard was a deeply mel… Salinger and John Updike. Even after acknowledging that he had written these works, however, Kierkegaard insisted that they continue to be attributed to their pseudonymous authors. "[16] To some degree, Kierkegaard can be seen as one of the few philosophers to whom the simple analytic/continental divide does not fully apply. This was Michael Kierkegaard's second marriage, which came within a year of his first wife’s death and four months into Ane Lund’s first pregnancy. His fame as a philosopher grew tremendously in the 1930s, in large part because the ascendant existentialist movement pointed to him as a precursor, although later writers celebrated him as a highly significant and influential thinker in his own right. See Julia Watkins, Kierkegaard (London and … Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Kierkegaard's present stature in the English-speaking world owes much to the exegetical writings and improved Kierkegaard translations by the American theologian Walter Lowrie, the University of Minnesota philosopher David F. Swenson, and the Danish translators Howard and Edna Hong. Anthony Rudd's book Kierkegaard and the Limits of the Ethical and Alasdair MacIntyre's discussion of Kierkegaard in After Virtue and A Short History of Ethics did much to facilitate Kierkegaard's legacy in ethical thought in analytic philosophy. Søren Kierkegaard, in full Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, (born May 5, 1813, Copenhagen, Den.—died Nov. 11, 1855, Copenhagen), Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. His resistance and uniqueness of an all embracing system has resulted in an opulent variety of influence on modern philosophy and literature. Kierkegaard was influenced early in life by the devoutly religious teachings of his father which concentrated on Christ's suffering. May based his The Meaning of Anxiety on Kierkegaard's The Concept of Anxiety. "Kierkegaard and Feminism: A Paradoxical Friendship", On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates, De omnibus dubitandum est: Everything Must Be Doubted, The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress, The Lily of the Field and the Bird of the Air, Three Discourses at the Communion on Fridays, Two Discourses at the Communion on Fridays, The Point of View of My Work as an Author, Thomasine Christine Gyllembourg-Ehrensvärd, Influence and reception of Søren Kierkegaard, Howard V. and Edna H. Hong Kierkegaard Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Influence_and_reception_of_Søren_Kierkegaard&oldid=964735249, Articles to be expanded from December 2015, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 June 2020, at 08:10. While a student at the university, Kierkegaard explored the literary figures of Don Juan, the wandering Jew, and especially Faust, looking for existential models for his own life. "The book as a whole contains much information on the genesis of Existentialism and on Kierkegaard's role in it." 87-90. [a] Sipe argues that it "would be of more benefit to feminism not to read Kierkegaard in search of his own personal stance on the woman question, but rather to read him in an exploratory manner as one who has exposed new avenues of thought, new ways of examining the woman question". Heidegger was to acknowledge Kierkegaard’s masterly exploration of the human condition as one of ‘Angst’. Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Emeritus, Fordham University. After his death, his original manuscripts were bequeathed by his one-time fiancée, Regine Olsen for posterity. Another early mention of Kierkegaard in German is from Johann Georg Theodor Grässe, who included Kierkegaard briefly in an 1848 review of European literature. Categories: Religion. Omissions? August Strindberg (1843-1912) found inspiration in Kierkegaard and the famous Norwegian dramatist and poet Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) clearly seems to have been inspired by the Dane in famous works such as Brand. The themes of sacrificial father/son relationships, of inherited sin, of the burden o… [9], Kierkegaard influenced 19th-century literature writers as well as 20th-century literature. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (/ ˈ s ɔr ən ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɑr d / or / ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɔr /; Danish: [ˈsɶːɐn ˈkiɐ̯ɡəɡɒːˀ]) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. His father, Michael Pedersen Kierkegaard, was a prosperous but retired businessman who devoted the later years of his life to raising his children. Language: en Pages: 228. Søren Kierkegaard, in full Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, (born May 5, 1813, Copenhagen, Den.—died Nov. 11, 1855, Copenhagen), Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. HE WAS THE FATHER OF EXISTENTIALISM. His wide-ranging works had lasting influence in philosophy, Protestant theology, literature, and cultural criticism. Søren Kierkegaard was a 19th century Danish philosopher who has been called the "Father of Existentialism". The whole book attracted much attention. "The book as a whole contains much information on the genesis of Existentialism and on Kierkegaard's role in it." Books about The Burden of Søren Kierkegaard. [18], Kierkegaard was first mentioned in a French publication in 1856 in Revue des deux mondes (English: Review of the Two Worlds) in an article detailing the state of Danish politics and culture which described his influence on the Danish church as having "bewildered many minds and troubled many weak or fearful consciences". His translations have been criticised repeatedly as unreliable: Heiko Schulz referred to them as "repeatedly revised, highly idiosyncratic, and at times breathtakingly free renditions of the Kierkegaardian texts". Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. The pseudonyms are best understood by analogy with characters in a novel, created by the actual author to embody distinctive worldviews; it is left to the reader to decide what to make of each one. Although The Corsair had praised some of the pseudonymous works, Kierkegaard did not wish to see his own project confused with that of the newspaper, so he turned his satirical skills against it. Updates? Not only did Kierkegaard inherit his fathers melancholy, his sense of guilt and anxiety, and his pietistic emphasis on the dour aspects of Christian faith, but he also inherited his talents for philosophical argument and creative imagination. “The greatest hazard of all, losing one’s self, can occur very quietly in the world, as if it were nothing … Søren Kierkegaard's influence on twentieth-century thought has been rich and varied. Kierkegaard predicted his posthumous fame, and foresaw that his work would become the subject of intense study and research. Søren Kierkegaard dies. Search all of SparkNotes Search. All references to Kierkegaard’s journals first give numbers in Søren Kierkegaard’s Journals and Papers followed by numbers in Søren Kierkegaards Papirer. She later donated most of his writings to the Danish Royal Library where they continue to be stored. 68, no. And therefore someday, not only my writings but my whole life, all the intriguing mystery of the machine will be studied and studied. Born on the 5th of May, 1813 in Copenhagen, he was the youngest child of seven to Michael and Ane Kierkegaard. Ultimately, Kierkegaard postulates that truth is … [7] Existentialist (often called "humanistic") psychologists and therapists include Ludwig Binswanger, Viktor Frankl, Erich Fromm, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May. Eric Hamm, Søren Kierkegaard Newsletter, no. [6], Kierkegaard had a profound influence on psychology. If the broken engagement was the cloud that hung over the first literary period, the Corsair debacle was the ghost that haunted the second. Philosophers from Adorno to Wittgenstein expressed great respect for his work and existential thinkers like Jaspers and Heidegger drew widely on his analysis of despair and freedom.. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. The influence of Søren Kierkegaard Nandrásky expressed his personal relationship to Kierkegaard in his short essay O dojmoch z Dánska vo forme listu S. Kierkegaardovi. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Most notably are American theologians Paul Tillich and Lincoln Swain, and philosophers from Europe -- Karl Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, Miguel de Unamuno -- and from Russia Nikolai Berdyaev. [19], Subsequent translations of Kierkegaard into French include those produced by Paul Petit, who produced a French translation of the Concluding Unscientific Postscript in 1941, as well as a translation of the Philosophical Fragments, published posthumously in 1947. "The Kierkegaard Library is a special collection that serves anyone interested in the writings and ideas of Søren Kierkegaard, the 19th-century Danish philosopher, and related thinkers. history, philosophy Let us take a brief departure from politics to some theological history, shall we? He attacked the literary, philosophical, and ecclesiastical establishments of his day for misrepresenting the highest task of human existence—namely, becoming oneself in an ethical and religious sense—as something so easy that it could seem already accomplished even when it had not even been undertaken. On the other hand, he often stressed that conversion is a long process. [19], The earliest mentions of Kierkegaard's work in German publications were written by Andreas Frederik Beck, himself Danish and one of the attendees at Kierkegaard's oral dissertation defence. After his father’s death, Kierkegaard became serious about finishing his formal education. https://philosophynow.org/issues/99/Soren_Kierkegaard_1813-1855 Milan Petkanic, Filozofia , vol. In Kierkegaard's native Denmark, the Danish people hosted his 200th anniversary of Kierkegaard's birth in Copenhagen in May 2013.[15]. Kierkegaard's influence on continental philosophy increased dramatically after the First and Second World Wars, especially among the German existenz thinkers and French existentialists. Søren Kierkegaard, in full Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, (born May 5, 1813, Copenhagen, Den.—died Nov. 11, 1855, Copenhagen), Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. There was an anonymous German review of Philosophical Fragments published in 1845 which subsequent scholarship believes was written by Beck. Martensen. What the age needs is awakening. August Strindberg (1843-1912) found inspiration in Kierkegaard and the famous Norwegian dramatist and poet Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) clearly seems to have been inspired by the Dane in famous works such as Brand. Hegel emphasized universals; Kierkegaard argued for decision and commitment. Search all of SparkNotes Search. Kierkegaard's fame in Denmark increased with each publication of his philosophical works, including Fear and Trembling and Philosophical Fragments, and culminating in his magnum opus, the Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments. He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christendom, morality, ethics, psychology, and the philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony, and parables. [13] Kierkegaard's work The Diary of a Seducer has been re-published several times, including Princeton University Press' translation with John Updike's foreword and Penguin Books' series Great Loves. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). His work remained limited to Scandinavia, but the 20th century saw the revival of his philosophy, as it influenced the West everlastingly. In his journals, he wrote: "What the age needs is not a genius—it has had geniuses enough, but a martyr, who in order to teach men to obey would himself be obedient unto death. Finally the celebrated Norwegian artist Edvard Munch(1863-1944) closely studied key conc… It is also clear that this crisis triggered a period of astonishing literary productivity, during which Kierkegaard published many of the works for which he is best known: Enten-Eller: et livs-fragment (1843; Either/Or: A Fragment of Life), Gjentagelsen (1843; Repetition), Frygt og baeven (1843; Fear and Trembling), Philosophiske smuler (1844; Philosophical Fragments), Begrebet angest (1844; The Concept of Anxiety), Stadier paa livets vei (1845; Stages on Life’s Way), and Afsluttende uvidenskabelig efterskrift (1846; Concluding Unscientific Postscript). Kierkegaard and Sartre Soren Kierkegaard was the first philosopher to actually consider that he wrote about Existentialism. Soren Kierkegaard was the first philosopher to actually consider that he wrote about Existentialism. Eric Hamm, Søren Kierkegaard Newsletter, no. But at Mynster’s funeral Martensen, who had succeeded to the leadership of the Danish church, eulogized his predecessor as a “witness to the truth,” linking him to the martyrs of the faith; after this Kierkegaard could no longer keep silent. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Kierkegaard has also influenced members of the analytical philosophy tradition, most notably Ludwig Wittgenstein, who considered Kierkegaard to be "the most profound thinker of the [nineteenth] century. It is actually supposed to be by a Kierkegaard who has adopted a pseudonym...."[1]. This is perhaps due to the facts that Kierkegaard was shunned by the Danish State Church, one of the major institutions in Denmark at the time, as well as the relative obscurity of the Danish language, compared to languages such as German and English. Paul Ricoeur and Judith Butler wrote monographs drawing new attention to Kierkegaard's work, and a 1964 UNESCO colloquium on Kierkegaard in Paris ranks as one of the most important events for a generation's reception of Kierkegaard, which included a keynote speaker, Sartre who gave his lecture The Singular Universal, which solidified Kierkegaard's influence over existentialism. Kierkegaard influenced 19th-century literature writers as well as 20th-century literature. Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) and Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) had an enormous impact upon the history of theology and western philosophy (besides having some really cool names). Søren Kierkegaard : biography 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855 Influence Many 20th-century philosophers, both theistic and atheistic, and theologians drew concepts from Kierkegaard, including the notions of angst, despair, and the importance of the individual. 1859. Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy has been a major influence in the development of 20th century philosophy, especially in the movements of Existentialism and Postmodernism. [2] Since Kierkegaard was raised as a Lutheran,[3] he was commemorated as a teacher in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 11 November and in the Calendar of Saints of the Episcopal Church with a feast day on 8 September. The influence of Søren Kierkegaard Nandrásky expressed his personal relationship to Kierkegaard in his short essay O dojmoch z Dánska vo forme listu S. Kierkegaardovi. In between, he broke his engagement with Regine Olsen, thus initiating the second major collision of his life. As Walter Lowrie in his A Short Life of Kierkegaardtells us, “Kierkegaard seems to have gotten his wit and his outgoing traits from his mother, and yet he doesn’t really say an awful lot about her. His religious He saw becoming a Christian as the task of a lifetime. 68, no. 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